The Department of Zoology offers courses leading to the award of B.Sc. degree in Zoology
HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT
The Department was created during the 1991/1992 academic session when the Department of Biological Sciences was split into three Departments (Botany, Microbiology and Zoology). The first Head of Department was Prof B. A. Obiamiwe who was on sabbatical leave from the Department of Zoology (now Department of Animal and Environmental Biology), University of Benin. The academic staff strength was about eight and the number of students was about 15. Since then, the number of academic staff has oscillated between eight and twelve while that of the students has grown to over three hundred and fifty.
Prof B. A. Obiamiwe handed over to Dr H. M. Yesufu (Reader) as Head of Department during the 1992/1993 academic session. Dr Yesufu was Head of Department for four years (1992/1993 - 1995/1996). Since then the following have been Heads of Department:
- Prof. I. B. Igbinosa - 1996/1997
- Dr C. A. Edokpayi - 1997/1998 - 1998/1999
- Prof. I. B. Igbinosa - 1999/2000 - 2000/2001
- Prof. P. A. Umoru - 2001/2002 - 2004/2005
- Prof. O. P. G. Nmorsi - 2005/2006 - 2007/2008
- Prof. L. A. Elakhame - 2008/2009 - 20010/2011
- Prof. O. N. Oigiangbe - 2011/2012 - Date
The Department of Zoology offers courses leading to the award of B.Sc. degree in Zoology
The programme is designed to adequately expose the students to general and practical education in Zoology. Students are thus trained to respond to the needs of the Nigerian Society through broad training/education in the areas of General and Applied Biology, Invertebrate and Vertebrate Zoology, Developmental Biology, Histology, Genetics, Animal Ecology, Nematology, Animal Systematics, Animal Behaviour, General Physiology, Pollution and Toxicology, Entomology, Hydrobiology, Fisheries,, Aquaculture and Parasitology.
The courses offered in the Department are aimed at:
- Producing graduates of Zoology that can contribute to national development in areas of Fisheries Biology, Entomology, Parasitology and Environmental Science
- Producing man power to meet national goals for development.
- Producing graduates with appropriate training required for carrying out experiments in Zoology
- Preparing students to contribute meaningfully to technological innovations in all spheres of the economy where their expertise is needed.
Admission is by Entrance Examination (UTME) or by Direct Entry. Candidate admitted by UTME undergo a 4-year degree programme while those admitted by Direct Entry do a 3-year degree programme.
- UTME Entry Requirement: Candidates MUST possess GCE/WASC/NECO ‘O’ Level with passes at credit level in at least five subjects including Biology, Chemistry, English Language and Mathematics in not more than two sittings. Waiver: A pass in Agricultural Science or Health Science and P7 in Physics may be considered.
- Direct Entry Requirement: Candidates for direct entry Admission (200 level) must in addition to (a) above possess passes at:
- HSC or G.C.E ‘A’ Level in Biology, Agricultural Science, Botany, Zoology and Chemistry,
- OND/NCE with grades not less than merit in related Subjects: Biology and Chemistry.
GUIDELINES ON COURSE UNIT SYSTEM
1. CATEGORIZATION OF COURSES
(a) Core Courses C)
These are courses that must be mounted by the university, taken by the student and passed in respect of the particular degree programme.
(b) Required Courses (R)
These are courses, which are mounted by the university, taken by the student on the advice of the Department in respect of a particular degree programme which the student may or may not pass.
(c) Elective Courses (E)
These are courses, which are mounted by the University, taken by the student on the advice of the Department in respect of a particular degree programme which the student may or may not pass.
II. PRE-REQUISITE COURSES
(a) Pre-requisite courses are courses, the knowledge of which are necessary prior to the taking of other specified (usually higher level) courses. A student is deemed to have obtained this prerequisite knowledge if he/she obtains a mark not less than 30% but will not be credited with any grades points in the courses concerned, except he/she scores a minimum mark of 40%.
(b) Pre-requisite courses must be reflected where applicable. As much as possible no course should be a pre-requisite for a course at the same level. Rather, such a course should be termed a concurrent course, that is, a course that is taken at the same (session) as the specified course.
III. QUANTIFICATION OF COURSES
(a) Courses are quantified in credit units or units for short. A UNIT equals 15 hours of lectures (i.e. 1 hour a week for 1 semester) or 15 hours of tutorials or 45 hours of laboratory/field work.
(b) No course should be less than 2 units and no lecture course should normally be more than 3 units.
(c) Courses that extend over both semesters (such as practical courses) will be credited at the end of the second semester.
IV. APPROVED DEPARTMENT CODES
BCH for Biochemstry
BIO for Biology
CHM for Chemistry
CSC for Computer Science
STA for Statistics
MTH for Mathematics
MCB for Microbiology
PHY for Physics
GEO for Geophysics
ZLY for Zoology
V. COURSE ADVISER
A course adviser is a member of Academic Staff who approves student registration forms. He advises students individually and ensures that their choices are consistent with the degree programme regulations and requirements. Each Department appoints one or more course advisers for her students.
VI. CLASS ADMIT/GRADE CARD
A class Admit/Grade Card shall be issued to every registered student and for each course registered for during the session. The card shall enable the lecturer in charge of a particular course exercise control over attendance at lecture. It shall also be used for the submission of grades in the examinations along with the grade points. Lecturers shall be required to certify that a student has attained 80% minimum contact hours before he/she is allowed to take the examination in the particular course.
VII. EXAMINATION PROCEDURE
(a) University examination shall be held at the end of each semester for all semester courses and at the end of each session for all sessional courses.
(b) Only students who are duly registered for courses in a given semester and have met their financial obligations to the university shall be eligible to sit for examination in those courses.
(c) Students who enter for examinations in courses for which they are not duly registered shall not be credited with any grades or units for the courses.
VIII. COURSE ASSESSMENT
(a) In every course, assessment must consist of continuous assessment (between 20% and 40%) and examination (between 60% and 80%)
(b) The pass mark for every course is 45%
(c) The grading system is as follows:
|70 - 100||A||5|
|60 - 69||B||4|
|50 - 59||C||3|
|45 - 49||D||2|
|0 - 44||F||0|
(d) Students’ results are to be prepared at the end of every semester, reflecting raw marks and grades, total units taken, total units passed and total units failed.
(e) At the end of every session a summary of students’ results is prepared, level by level, reflecting the units taken during the session, the units passed during the session, the sessional G.P.A., the courses failed for the session, the cumulative units taken, the cumulative units passed, the CGPA, and remarks of proceeding or probation or withdrawal from the (degree) programme as the case may be.
(f) At the end of the degree programme, students’ result are prepared reflecting details of the sessions’ performance, including a list of courses failed for the session as well as the cumulative performance including the degree classification (where applicable) according to the following table.
|CGPA||CLASS OF DEGREE|
|4.50 - 5.00||1st Class|
|3.50 - 4.49||2nd Class Upper|
|2.40 - 3.49||2nd Class Lower|
|1.50 - 2.39||3rd Class|
|0.00 - 1.49||Fail|
(g) Both the sessional GPA and CGPA are calculated using the weighted grade point. The weighted grade point for the course is the product of the point and the units for the course. Thus a student who scores 62% in a three-unit course has a grade point of 4 and a weighted grade point of 3 x 4 = 12 for that course. Thus the sessional G.P.A is calculated from the formula
Sessional GPA = Total Weighted points in the session / Total Unit Taken
Similarly, the CGPA is calculated from the formula;
CGPA = Total Weighted points for all the session / Total Unit Taken
provided that all courses taken that are relevant to a particular degree programme are used in the computation of the various averages.
In computing CGPA, performance in all courses registered for and taken in the course of a particular degree programme must be used.
(h) The inclusion of the column (for cumulative taken) in each of the formulas for presentation of results to Senate and to Faculty Board enables one to keep tract of the weighted product expressed to the nearest integer, of the CGPA and the cumulative unit taken) where applicable.
(i) As an example, consider a student who takes seven course in a semester with the following tabulated details:
|Unit (a)||Mark (b)||Grade ©||Grade Point (d)||Weighted Grade Point (a) x (d)|
Total Units Taken = 19
Total Weighted grade Point = 42
If the total units taken for the second semester is 25 with a total weighted grade point of 64 the sessional GPA is given by:
(42 + 64) / (19 + 25) = 106 / 44 = 2.41
A student may have the following tabulated results over four sessions:
|Weighted Grade Point||Total Units||Cumulative Weighted Grade Point||Cumulative Units||CGPA|
Thus, the CGPA at the point of graduation is 2.71 hence the student will come up with Second Class Lower Division Degree
(j) There is no reference in any course examination. Long vacation semester has been abrogated.
(k) There is no repeat in the course system. Therefore, a student cannot re-register for a course already passed.
(l) A student must accumulate at least 30 units per level before graduation
(m) There is no weighting of sessional GPA in the computation of CGPA
(n) In the computation of the CGPA all courses taken in the session will be used, and therefore no course will be disregarded or discountenanced.
IX STUDENT WORKLOAD
(a) A full-time student must register for a minimum of 30 units and a maximum of 48 units per session. This implies that a student should normally register for a minimum of 15 units and a maximum of 24 units per semester.
(b) A student who is unable to take a course examination in a particular course due to approved absence will be required to re-register for the course at the next available opportunity. Such a student will not normally be allowed to take any course for which the incomplete course is a pre-requisite. Please note that a student cannot exceed the approved workload without approval by the University Senate.
(a) A student who makes a CGPA of 1.00 or more at the end of the session will proceed to the next level of the degree programme for which he/she is registered.
(b) A student who makes a CGPA of less than 1.00 at the end of the session will be on probation for the following session to enable him/her improve on the CGPA. During that session he must register for the appropriate core courses and other courses he/she has the pre-requisites before he/she can register for any higher level course.
(c A student on probation during a session who makes a CGPA of less than 1.00 at the end of that session must withdraw from the degree programme for which he/she is registered.
(d if the student changes to a new degree programme and obtains a CGPA of less than 1.00 in the new degree programme he/she will again be on probation. If however, he/she obtains a CGPA of less than 1.00 a second time in the new degree programme he/she will be asked to withdraw from the University.
(a) Every student seeking transfer from one degree programme to another must complete the necessary forms within the stipulated time.
(b) All courses taken in the previous degree programme that are deemed relevant to the new degree programme by the offering Department will be used for the computation of his/her CGPA for the new degree programme.
(c) All regulations in respect of the new degree programme concerning core courses, required courses, etc, must be met before graduation
XIL. HONOURS CLASSIFICATION
(a) No student shall qualify for the award of an honours degree of the University if he/she spends more than two sessions (four semesters) beyond the normal period allowed for the degree programme.
(b) No student who has transferred more than twice will be qualified for an honours degree.
XIII. STUDENT REGISTRATION
(a) The first week of the period for course registration during the first semester of each session shall be lecture free to enable all registration officials attend to all students fully.
(b) During this period the registration time will at least be from 9.00am to 2.00pm daily
(c) Every level in each Department will be assigned one or more lecturers to act as registration officers for students in that level throughout the duration of the exercise.
(d) Student registration for any semester courses may be adjusted by the use of add and delete forms within the first two weeks of the commencement of lectures during the semester.
(e) Late registration may be allowed in the third week of the session upon payment of a penalty fee.
XIV. MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS
Students who had started their degree programme before the current NUC scheme (i.e. before the 2013/2014 academic session) will continue to be assessed according to regulations under that scheme until they are completely phased out.
XV. ABSENCE FROM EXAMINATION
(a) Candidates must present themselves at the examinations in courses for which they have registered.
(b) Candidate who fail to do so for reasons other than certified ill health or accident or for any other reason acceptable to the Dean shall be deemed to have failed that examination. i.e would have F grade.
(c) For the avoidance of doubt, failure to take cognizance of changes in the examination timetable and such lapses on the part of the candidates shall not be accepted as reasonable excuse for absence.
(d) A candidate who falls ill during an examination shall report to the Director of the University Health Services who shall subsequently submit a report in writing to the Dean of the Faculty after treating the candidate.
(e) A candidate who is unable to take an examination on grounds of illness confirmed by the University Director of Health Services, on ground specified above may be allowed to sit for the examination at the next available opportunity as first attempt.
(f) When necessary, on grounds of ill health and certified by the Director of Health Services, an examination can be taken in the Hospital or related location as approved by the Dean and invigilator.
XVI. IMPORTANT EXAMINATION REGULATIONS
(a) Students shall not be admitted into the examination hall if they have not been duly registered by the various Faculty/Faculties having fulfilled the prescribed conditions of the course of study.
(b) Eligible candidates shall report at the stipulated examination halls thirty minutes before the start of the examination.
(c) No candidate shall be allowed into the examination hall after 30 minutes of the start of the examination
(d) No candidate shall be allowed to leave the examination within the first 30 minutes of the examination
(e) No candidate shall be allowed to withdraw from the examination hall within 30 minutes of commencement of examination
(f) Candidate may be allowed to go to the toilet, etc, during examination, provided that they are accompanied throughout the period of absence by a suitable officer, such absence must not be unreasonably prolonged and the candidate shall not be allowed any extra time by reason of such absence.
(g) The Chief Invigilator may under special circumstance accept a candidate into the examination hall after 30 minutes of the start of the examination if he/she is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for the lateness. A report of this situation must be formally made to the Chief Examiner.
(h) Candidates shall not be allowed to bring into the examination hall any personal bag, electronic gadgets and organizer, textbooks, scrap notes or such other personal effects except such materials as may be permitted for use in the same examination.
(i) Candidates shall not walk out of the examination hall with any answer sheet/booklets used or unused.
(j) Candidates shall comply with any instruction given by the Chief Invigilator as to the submission of their answer sheets at the conclusion of the examination.
(k) It shall be the responsibility of each candidate to ensure that his/her examination sheets are duly accounted for to the Chief Invigilator at the examination hall.
(l) All rough notes, scraps sheets, draft answers, etc which do not from part of the definitive answer sheets must be submitted after appropriate cancellation, to the Chief Invigilator with the definitive answer sheet at the conclusion of the examination.
(m) Candidates shall not talk to one another, give or receive from one another any from of assistance, pens, eraser, pencil, rulers, etc.
(n) All questions pertaining to the examination must be directed to the Chief Invigilator or any of the accredited Invigilators
(o) The Chief Invigilator shall report any examination misconduct formally to the Chief Examiner/Dean of the Faculty as specified by Senate.
(p) Any contravention of any of the above rules and regulations shall constitute examination misconduct. All candidates shall comply with these regulations in their own interest
(q) Invigilators shall tell the candidates the exact time of starting an examination and thereafter inform them of the time at reasonable intervals.
(r) Invigilators shall ensure that personal effects such as bags, electronic organizers, textbooks, scrap notes, etc are not brought into the examination hall by the candidates and that unused answer scripts are not taken out.
(s) Silence shall be maintained throughout the duration of an examination
(t) Invigilators shall ensure that all candidates sign the attendance register
(u) At the end of an examination, each invigilator shall collect and count the scripts before handing them over to the Chief Invigilator who shall sign the answer booklets.
XVII. CONFERMENT OF DEGREE
After the recommended examination results from the Faculty Board have been approved by Senate, successful candidates shall be admitted either in person or in absentia to the degree of the University at the convocation for the award of degrees, and thereafter issued with certificate under the common seal of the University.
BIO 101: GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 (3 UNITS)
Cell structure, organization, and functions of cellular organelles. Diversity, characteristics, and classification of living things. General reproduction. Inter-relationship of organisms. Elements of ecology and types of habitat. Heredity and evolution.
ZLY 101: INTRODUCTORY ZOOLOGY (3UNITS)
Basic concepts and practice of the science of Entomology, Hydrobiology/fisheries, and Parasitology.
BIO 111: GENERAL BIOLOGY 11 (3UNITS)
A general survey of plant and animal kingdoms based mainly on the study of similarities and differences in the external features and ecological adaptations of the life forms.
BIO 201: INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY (3 UNITS)
The general nature of ecosystems; energy flow and biochemical cycles in ecosystems. Ecology of populations and communities. The organization and dynamics of ecological communities. The distribution of plants and animals over the surface of the earth with special reference to Nigerian plants and animals.
BIO 202: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY (3 UNITS)
Physical and chemical processes in animal and plant physiology. The principles of physiology as illustrated by cells, tissues, organs and whole organism. Functional relationship of different organs and systems in vertebrates. Metabolic processes, coordination and control of metabolism. Growth, reproduction and contraception.
ZLY 201: INVERTEBRETES (4 UNITS)
General characteristics, organization, classification, interrelationships, life history, adaptations and economic importance of invertebrate phyla illustrated with selected examples from Protozoa to Echinodermata.
ZLY 202: ANIMAL TAXONOMY (3 UNITS)
History, rise and development of taxonomy. Taxa, taxonomic approach principles, categories and characters. Special methods of Zoological classification. Variations in natural populations. The use of identification keys and classification of selected invertebrates and vertebrates. The application of statistics in taxonomy.
BIO 211: GENETICS 1 (3 UNITS)
Heritable and non-heritable characteristics. Probability and test for goodness of fit. Quantitative inheritance. Variation in genomic structure. Introduction to population genetics.
BIO 215: INTRODUCTORY CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (3 UNITS)
History and present trends in cell biology. Reproduction, cell division, differentiation and growth. A brief study of the molecular basis of cell structure and development. Organelle proteins and nucleic acids.
ZLY 212: ZOOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES (2 UNITS)
Microscopy, microtechniques and microphotograph illustrations. Histological, physiological, entomological, hydrobiological and parasitological techniques. Preparation of skeleton and other teaching aids
ZLY 213: ANIMAL ECOLOGY (4 UNITS)
Basic concepts, scope and levels of ecology, Definitions and attributes of organisms, populations and communities. Types of animal distribution (uniform, random and aggregate). The distribution of plants and animals over the surface of the earth with special reference to local flora and fauna. Animal population interactions: neutralism, mutualism, cooperation, commensalisms, ammensalism, predation, parasitism and competition. The use of models in ecology. Characteristics of population. Population dynamics/growth (exponential and logistic growth); growth curve (J-shape and sigmoid shape) of animal population. Population sampling and estimation. Regulation/control of animal numbers. Agents of environmental degradation that are a threat to human and animal populations.
BIO 301: GENETICS 11 (3 UNITS)
Aspects of human genetics. Pedigree analysis. Further consideration various deviations from basic principles. Gene interactions.
BIO 302: INTRODUCTORY NEMATOLOGY (2 UNITS)
General characteristics of nematodes. Morphology and outlines of classification of nematodes. The biology of important plant parasitic nematodes and their economic importance. Nematological techniques. General principles and methods of controlling nematodes.
BIO 303: BIOSTATISTICS (3 UNITS)
Elements of statistics. Data collection, organization, analysis and interpretation. Multi-sample hypothesis and multiple sample comparisons. Two-way factorial analysis of variance. Multi-way factorial analysis of variance. Simple linear correlation and regression. Comparison of linear regression equations. Multiple regression. Binomial distribution and test for randomness. Experimental design. Review of research methodology.
ZLY 301: BASIC PARASITOLOGY (3 UNITS)
The concepts of parasitism and host-parasite relationship. Taxonomy, morphology and life cycles of major parasitic groups infecting man and domestic animals in tropical Africa. Transmission. epidemiology, pathology and control of parasitic diseases. A comprehensive review of arthropods as intermediate hosts and vectors, their habitats, life cycle, transmission and control.
ZLY 304: BASIC ENTOMOLOGY (3 UNITS)
Introductory study of main groups of insects related to human welfare and economy. Insect evolution, classification and distribution. Insect integument; composition, structure and physiology. The muscular, nervous, blood circulation and water systems, respiration, digestion and excretion in insects. The behaviour and ecology of social insects. Bionomics of suitable species and general principles and methods of arthropod pests control.
ZLY 305: BASIC HUDROBIOLOGY (3 UNITS)
Principles of aquatic biology with particular reference to limnology. Water as an environment for life. The marine and brackish / estuarine environment: colonization, succession and biogeochemical cycling of micronutrients. Procedures and techniques in the estimation of aquatic productivity at primary and secondary levels.
ZLY 306: CHORDATE BIOLOGY (4 UNITS)
General characteristics, organization, comparative morphology and anatomy; classification, range of forms, origin, evolution and phylogenetic relationships; distribution and general biology of proto-chordates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals illustrated with selected examples.
ZLY 311: STUDENT INDUSTRAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) (15 UNITS)
The course is designed to expose students to the practical aspects of Zoology. It involves attachment and visits to research institutes and establishments in the country for a period of six months to understudy scientist/technologists working in the relevant areas of Parasitology, Entomology, Hydrobiology, Fisheries /Aquaculture and Physiology. The course exposes students to modern equipment facilities and methods used in the relevant areas of research.
ZLY 401: FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE (3 UNITS)
Fish morphology and anatomy. Classification of major fish groups with reference to tropical regions. Fish biology: breeding and adaptations, studies of food and feeding habits, of fish populations, fecundity, reproduction, age and growth in fish populations. Ecological adaptations in fishes. Invertebrates and fish community interactions. Predation in fresh water ecosystems. Brief classification of fishes and their distribution in Nigerian water. Aquaculture: general principles, techniques and practices. Fish technology.
ZLY 402: APPLIED PARASITOLOGY (3 UNITS)
The origin and evolution of parasites and the ecological basis of parasitism. Ecology and geographical distribution of animal parasites. Immunological phenomena. Immunodiagnosis, autoallergy and its relation to parasitic diseases. Biochemistry – oxygen relations, CO2 utilization, energy metabolism, active transport, phosphorylation; physiology – nutrition host-finding mechanisms, physiology of the infection process (for example, encystment, hatching, exsheathment) of host – parasite relationship, Epidemiology and public Health parasitology: epidemiological methods and health related aspects of community development.
ZLY 403: APPLIED HYDROBIOLOGY (3UNITS)
Production processes of invertebrates that facilitate management of fish stocks, distribution; adaptations and interrelationships. Trophic relations: energy flow and consequent applied implications in terms of production and utilization. Man’s influence on aquatic communities. Pollution and lead capacity of inland waters. Reaction of water bodies to disturbances. Hydrobiology research techniques
ZLY 404: APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY (4 UNITS)
Collecting, killing, preparing, preserving and identifying insects. Systematics and bionomics of major insect orders with particular reference to tropical and subtropical species of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. Pesticides: classification and mode of action. Crop protection decisions and methods of insect pest control/management. Insect reproductive system, embryonic and post-embryonic developments and physiology of moulting. Hormones and pheromones.
ZLY 406: SEMINAR (2 UNITS)
A critical review of the literature on selected topics under staff supervision. The course is aimed at giving the student a good knowledge on how to prepare and deliver seminar papers.
ZLY 407: ANIMAL HISTOLOGY (3 UNITS)
Cellular basis of tissue formation. The main-features and functions of animal cells, tissues and organs. Biochemistry of selected tissues, liver, blood, intestine, endocrine and reproductive organs. Histological and histochemical techniques.
ZLY 411: CONSERVATION AND TOURSIM (3 UNITS)
The philosophy, principles and objectives of conservation and tourism. Threats to natural resources. Conservation of natural resources, threatened and endangered species. Management principles for conservation and tourism. Distribution of game birds and mammals. National parks, sanctuaries and game reserves in Nigeria.
ZLY 412: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (3 UNITS)
A brief treatment of the environment and environmental systems (lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere) and the interactions of the components. Pollution and pollutants: types, sources and effects of pollution in various environmental systems. Greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect, and global warming. as well as gas flaring and spillage in the Niger Delta. Special attention to be paid to domestic/municipal waste generation and disposal in Nigeria. Air, water and soil quality criteria and standards. Bioindicators of pollution. Bioasssys. Management / control – of environmental pollution: methods and legislative regulation of pollution, Environmental impact assessment (EIA).
ZLY 413: RESEARCH PROJECT (6 UNITS)
A critical review of the literature in an area of special interest and limited research conducted under Departmental supervision, aimed at including a hypothesis, experimental planning and data presentation.
ZLY 414: ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR (3 UNITS)
The development of animal behavious. Neuro-physiological organ stimuli, reflexes and complex behaviours as well as biological rhythms, instinct and learning, motivation, and conflict behaviour threat display, displacement activity, in animals. Social behaviour in invertebrates and vertebrates.
ZLY 415: ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4 UNITS)
Principles of gaseous exchange: aquatic and terrestrial respiration, respiratory adaptations and their physiological basis. Comparative account of animal nutrition. Haemodynamics: comparative treatment of animal hearts and circulatory mechanisms. Homoeostasis: regulation of body fluid composition, detoxification mechanisms and nitrogenous excretion. Neuromuscular physiology. Sensory and hormonal coordination mechanisms, growth and reproduction in animals. Physiological adjustment to environmental temperature, pressure, chemicals, etc. Endothermy, dormancy and physiological adjustment to auditory phenomenon.
ZLY 416: COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE EMBROYOLOGY (3 UNITS)
Comparative study of animal development, emphasizing differences in post zygotic development of selected chordates from protochordates to mammals. Techniques of and interference from experimental embryology.
BIO 413: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3 UNITS)
A brief review of the structures of purines, pyrimidines and nucleic acids. Genetic elements of DNA. Mutation and recombination of DNA. DNA replication and its control. RNA transcriptions. Structure and function of RNA. Protein synthesis and genetic code.