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Nigerian Journal Of Educational Research – Volume 7 – No. 1

NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Volume  7, No. 1, August, 2007
INSTIUTE OF EDUCATION
AMBROSE ALLI UNIVERSITY, EKPOMA

PURPOSE
The purpose of the Nigerian journal of educational research (NIJER) is to provide opportunities for the publication of substantial and research papers in the various disciplines in education.

CONTENT
The journal publishes article, which reflect diverse areas of interest to educators, particularly stimulating research study reports, theoretical formations and other related article relevant to education in a socio-cultural system such as Nigeria.  The journal will also publish contributions from other parts of the world.

FREQUENCY
Normally one issue per year will be published in September

SUBMISSION OF ARTICLES
Article, analytical reviews of the literature, and so on, in triplicate should be addressed to the Editor-in-chief and will be assessed for publication.  Guidelines for style, format, and so on are presented for potential contributors at the end of this issue.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF;
Momoh  S.O.  Ph.D.
Institute of Education
Ambrose Alli University
P.M.B.14
Ekpoma

NOTE:  Views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the members of the editorial Board or Institute of Education, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma-Nigeria.

EDITORIAL BOARD
Editor –In –Chief: Prof. M.O. Omo-Ojugo
General Editor: Dr. S.O. Momoh
Associate Editors: Dr. (Mrs.) R.E. Okecha, Dr. (Mrs.) M.O. Asokhia
Business Manager: Dr. F.I. Olusi

Consulting Editors:
Prof. D.I. Denga, University of  Calabar, Calabar
Prof. E.T. Ehiametalor, University of Benin, Benin-City
Prof. E.A. Arubayi, Delta State University, Abraka
Prof. M. Omolewa, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Prof. M.A. Adewole, University of Jos, Jos
Prof. Nduka Okoh, University of Benin, Benin-City.
Pro. D.O. Aigbomian, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

CALL FOR PAPERS
This is announce the call for paper for Vol. 7 no. I of our journal (NIJER).  The journal publishes articles,   which reflect diverse areas of interest to educations and allied particularly stimulating study reports, theoretical formulations and other related articles relevant to education in socio-cultural contribution from other parts of the world. Articles analytical reviews of the literature and so on in triplicate should be addressed to the editor in chief and will be assessed for publication. Article should be in the range of 12-15 pages quarto sheets and generous margin on each page.  Tables chart and which should be typed on separate sheets must be as few as possible.  Reference should conform to the recent APA style. Article should have a title page, which contains only the title of the article.  An abstract of the article should be included which summaries the article in approximately 120-150 words. Assessment fees of #2000.00 should be accompany each of the article contributions/enquires.

Article, papers and request for information should be addressed to;
The Editor –in Chief
Nigerian Journal of Educational Research
Institute of Education
Ambrose Alli University
Ekpoma


S.O. Momoh
General Editor

Gender, Educational Attainment and Fertility Among the Esan of Nigeria.

ODIAGBE, SIMS (DR)

ABSTRACT
This study was basically interested in the relationship between gender and educational attainment and how this relationship influence fertility among the Esan of Nigeria.  The survey research and focus group discussion were employed to elicit information from the sampled respondents.  Due to the variables under investigation, married couples were systematically sampled from selected clusters, in the area of study.  The Enumeration Area (EAs) demarcated in the 1991 populations census forms the sampling frames.  A total of 660 couples formed the sampled while ten (10) focus group discussion sessions were held.  The study explained that though educational attainment, especially, female education, has inverse relationship with fertility, it does not automatically translate into lower fertility.  Female education was found to encourage participation in family life discussion but decisions are taken by men.  Family planning activities were observed not to be the prerogative of women.  Approval are often sort and obtained from husbands.  It is therefore recommended that while encouraging educational attainment for the girl-child at all levels, men should henceforth be integrated into activities geared towards reducing fertility rate since they play active role in family life decisions.

INTRODUCTION
Demographers are gender sensitive when analyzing fertility as an important component of population growth rate and change.  This sensitivity account for why there is a higher concentration on the absolute number of women, their age, religious affiliation, educational attainment, occupation etc partly because of the understanding that they actually bear the physical ad emotional strain of pregnancy and child birth.  Our attempt here is however to find out the relationship between gender relationship and educational attainment and how this in turn influences fertility in Nigeria.  It is hoped that a study of the different social groups in the country will give an insight into the fertility situation.

Gender is the set of social and cultural practices that influence the lives of men and women in every society. It is central to the way a society is organized.  It orders social relationships in such a way that some individuals have greater powers than others.  Riley (1997:13) holds that gender affects both ‘power to’ and  ‘power over’. ‘Power to’ refers to the ability to act and have access to social resources such as education, money, land or time.  She noted that generally, women  have less ‘power to’ – go to school, inherit land and enter or refuse a marriage.  They have less power compared to the men in family decision and less authority than men in the work place.  Gender influences all aspects of our lives, the schooling we receive, the social roles we play, and the power and authority we command.  The interpretation of this relationship can be influenced significantly by educational attainment.

Education is one of the most important sources of opportunity in any society.  The ability to read and write gives individuals access to a wide body of knowledge.  Formal education and its related activities expose people to social life outside the family and cultural practices elsewhere.  School provides entry into other opportunities such as political office, social pre-eminence and jobs with higher status and better pay.  Riley (1997:51) noted that in nearly all developing countries, women are more likely to be illiterates and to have completed fewer years of education than men.  Relying on United Nations (1995) figures, Riley revealed that illiteracy was higher for women than men among young adults in many countries in the 1990s.  The United Nations data for instance indicate that 55 percent of men in Bangladesh aged between 15 – 24 years were illiterate, 75 percent of women in the same age bracket were.  In the same vein, Croll (1995: 134) has also noted that in China, the number of girls kept out of school to work at home is increasing because of economic reforms.  Girls more than boys are expected by parents to drop out of school to assist in family trade and business and observed that 70% of school-age-drop-out are girls.

This is based partly on the understanding that parents essentially lose their investment in their daughters education.  Conway and Bourgue (1993) are of the view that girls and boys often have very different education experiences in school and the kind of opportunities that schooling provides.  Girls they noted are given less attention inside and outside classroom and when they enter the labour force, women gain a smaller return on their educational achievements than do men.  Umar (1996:14) has noted that though our governments in Nigeria have tried to improve the image of women by introducing programmes aimed at improving the traditional dependence on the female,  our cultures does not place the female as equal to the male.  In a similar manner, Okorodudu and Igun (2002:68) have noted that in Northern Nigeria, cultural practices and religious factors of early marriages and purdan practices have serious consequences for female access to educational facilities.  While relying on data from the Federal Office of Statistics revealed that in 1985 while the literacy rate of men was 40 percent, that of the women was 15 percent.  By the 1990, the literary rate of men improved to 49 percent while those of women was 35 percent.

Based on data from the Federal Ministry of Education in 1994 on primary and secondary school enrolment by gender, Awa (1996:18) showed that there was a consistent evidence on statistical difference between male and female enrolment in primary school.  In 1984/85 session while the rate for the males was 55.7 percent, the female was 44.7 percent.  In 1989/90 session, the rate was now 57 percent for the male while the female was 43 percent.  Two years later in 1992/93 session the rate for male was 52 percent and 48 percent for the females.  This shows that although there was improvement in female enrolment, the disparity was still up to about 4 percent.  For the secondary school, the disparity was wider for the same period.  In 1984/85 while the enrolment rate for the male was 52.5%, it was 47.5 for the females.  This rate increased to 91.9 for the male in 1989/90 session but declined for the females (8 percent).  In 1992/93 session male enrolment was now down to 66 percent and improved to 34 percent for the female.  This disparity also affected the university levels.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
What effect has this gender inequality in educational opportunities on fertility?  Riley (1997) has noted that in nearly all societies, the amount of education a woman receives affects the number of children she has and the way she cares for them.   She also associated and observed that children whose mothers completed secondary or higher education are much less likely to be short or under weight for their age than are children with less educated mothers, an indication that they are more likely to receive adequate food.

In a family health survey by Lesetadi et al (1988) and Nigerian Federal Office of Statistics (1990), it was revealed that women’s education influences fertility and child mortality at the societal as well as the individual level.  The conclusion however was that the fertility rate declines as women’s educational level increases, reflecting the usual relationship between education and child bearing of individual women.

The influence of education on demographic process is not limited to what men or women learn in  the classroom.  Women’s education can influence fertility by raising the age at marriage, providing women with new job opportunities, introducing women to new values or ideas.  It can also influence higher socio-economic status, urban living or infant/child mortality.  Women who are more highly educated are more likely to marry and have their first birth later than those with less educational attainment due to the number of years spent during schooling.  This suggest that schooling acts as a catalyst that delays marriage.  Levine et al (1994) also notes that women who attend school learn skills that help them notice and read health messages and make use of health services.  When women attend school, they may learn about new ways to promote sanitation and health for themselves and their children.  Education according to Caldwell (1979) not only change an individual woman’s interaction with institutions, but also change the way other see her and expect her to behave.  Children of educated women are healthier because their mothers are more likely to obtain better health care for their children, even if it means challenging the authority of mother-in-law, husbands or medical personnel.  When women obtain an education they are likely to use their new roles to protect their children.

Inspite of this overall effect of education on fertility, school enrolment for the women still favour the men compared to the women.  What are therefore the factors responsible for this problem? In circumstances where family roles differs and gender inequality visible, can female education automatically translate into lower fertility? Can educated women adopt family planning services for example without the consent of her husband? What is the role of the husband in reproductive decision making inspite of the educational attainment of the wife?  What are the roles of significant others such as the man’s parents, grand parents and the kinsmen in the maintenance of pronatalist culture? How far has the support of high fertility been shaken under the onslaught of modernization and forces of change among the Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria?
These questions translates into these hypotheses

  1. Women’s higher educational attainment inversely affect fertility rates.
  2. There is a relationship between decision making within the home and lower level of adoptions of family planning services by women.
  3. Female autonomy has a positive relationship with lower fertility rate.

METHOD OF STUDY
 
Participants:
Since gender variables are involved in this research, 660 married pairs were sampled.  The Enumeration Areas (EAs) demarcated in the 1991 population censes for the five local government areas that make up the Esan people were used in the study.  There are about 400 or more persons per E.A. Ten EAs were selected at random from each L.G.A. – four from the headquarters (urban) and six from the other villages (rural).  On the whole 50 EAs were randomly selected for the research work.
 
A sampling frame of households in each EA was drawn up from where systematic samples of households were selected.  Each EA has about 80 or more households.  About 15 house holds were sampled from each urban EA using the systematic random sampling method.  This gave about 30 respondents from each EA.  From this frame, every fifth household was selected to represent the population.  This is because the sampling fraction is about 5 i.e 15/80.  In each selected household, an ever-married respondent male and female were interviewed.  Where no such couple was found were interviewed.  Where no such couple was found effort was made to select other respondents in the next household as a replacement.  The respondents were interviewed in pairs (husband and wife) to enable the research examine both individual and interpersonal variables responsible for fertility decisions.

Instrumentation:
All the 660 respondents were administered with structured interview schedule that had 47 questions.  The schedule contained detailed information about individual, household and community characteristics or variables affecting fertility.  The questions included social and demographic characteristics about people, household income, contraceptive awareness and utilisation, household decision-making processes etc.  The focus group discussion sessions were also formed taking into cognisance level of education, age, sex and residence.  The discussion guide had 30 questions related to the research.
 
For each of the items in the interview schedule, the respondents were to choose between the alternatives provided and in some cases the questions were open-ended.  The interview schedule was prepared by the researcher and validity and reliability were ensured by the systematic process of item selection by senior researchers and professor in sociology and demography.  Internal consistency reliability was ensured by the fact that the schedule was administered to subjects in the surrounding communities in form of pilot study before the large scale research was conducted.
 
Procedures:
To effectively reach this large sample 16 research assistants (8 males and 8 females) made up of graduate students and secondary school teachers in the communities were trained for the filed work.  A pre-projection visits were made to three (3) chosen location and the instruments tested as part of the training programme.  The focus group discussion session were conducted by the researcher because very accurate observations were needed.  Two researchers were to visit each sampled couple and interview conducted simultaneously.  The male was to interview the man and the female interview the woman. It was felt that couples will be freer with same sex than opposite sex due to the sensitive nature of the questions.  This means that research assistants were to visit couples only when it was convenient for both of them.  Evenings and Sunday became ideal periods for the interview.  This account for why research assistants were selected from their communities.
Multi-variant analysis (multiple regression) was conducted.  In addition to this, qualitative analysis was conducted on data generated from the focus group discussion.
 
FINDINGS
It was revealed in this study that of the 1320 respondents, 1167 representing 88.4 percent have attended and received some forms of formal education.  Only 11.6 percent claimed that they did not receive any form of schooling and are therefore unable to read and write.  About 90.2 percent of the female and 86.7 percent of the male respondents have received some forms of education.  While 82.2 percent of this group are on the rural areas, 95.8 percent of them are urban dwellers indicating a high level of education in urban areas.
 
The Table (II) below reveal that of the 1167 respondents who received some forms of schooling, the majority representing 64.6 percent, had between 7 and 12 years of formal education.  About 68.7 percent of the men fall within this age group relative to 53.6 percent for the female respondents.  Only 12.2 percent of women respondents had about 12 years of schooling relative to 34 percent men.  It is not surprising that only 14.2 percent of rural respondents spent 12 years and above in school.  A closer look at these figures reveal that more males acquired higher levels of education compared to the women.
 
On the issue of educational attainment, about 17.9 percent of all respondents had some primary school education (complete or not).  A total of 7.5 percent males had only primary school education compared with 27.9 of women.  But surprisingly 13.7 percent of the urban respondents fall into this low education category relative to 21.9 percent of the rural sample.  It was revealed by the data that as the level of education increases beyond secondary school level, the disparity in  the educational attainment between men and women starts to widen.  This shows that although all children might be encouraged to attain some forms of education, higher educational attainment is found more among males than females.  Early marriages for women may also be partly responsible for this disparity in educational attainment.
 
On the relationship between level of education and fertility, the multiple regression analysis of children ever born and ideal family size was done for both males and females.  This was due to the gender variables involved in this work.  This analysis was therefore not concentrated only on female respondents which has become a tradition in demographic analysis partly because we found out that even as couples, individuals may have fertility values and motivations which may not be subsumed in the marital union even when classified as “one body one flesh”.
 
Women education has been associated with lower fertility as shown in virtually all studies in fertility.  Female education is also though to facilitate fertility decline by increasing the bargaining power of women, allowing them greater control over their destiny and improving husband-wife communication (Jejeeboy 1992, UN 1987).  In this study, education shows the expected inverse relationship with children ever born and ideal family size for female (P<.01) for the males. Increase in education also stimulate a decrease in the number of children ever born and ideal family size.  This means that as the man’s status increase in relation to educational attainment he makes efforts to plan his family. (See table)
 
A positive relationship was also found to exist between higher educational attainment and participation in family discussions and decisions.  The same relationship was also in existence with husband-wife communication in relation to reproductive issues.  In other words, higher educational attainment exposes the women and instill in her that courage to communicate freely with her husband.  This openness encourage initiating and participating in family discussion including reproductive matters.  On who takes the final decision, it was observed that while educational attainment stimulate participation in family decision, it does not confer on the women the right to take final decision. These conclusions finds support in the qualitative analysis of the focus group discussion sessions. The analysis reveal that although it was expected that educated women are more likely to participate in reproductive decision-making, what was found here was that such participation was not automatic.  From the focus group discussion sessions, the level of education of the man, closeness of the man to tradition, maturity of the women and the liberal attitude of the man and his family members are some of the factors responsible for such participation.
 
One FGD session reached the following consensus.
Educated women can only take part in family discussion in the home including reproductive matters without creating problems when the husband himself is educated and create avenues for such discussion and decisions.  For example whether educated or not, a woman cannot use family planning without the consent of the husband.  She also cannot refuse her husband sexual advances what ever the level of education.  The man has control over a lot of things including taking final decision in all family matters.
 
This consensus from the focus group discussion (FGDs) is that higher educational attainment for the women does not automatically translate into taking reproductive decision.  The man must be involved to take final decision.
 
CONCLUSIONS
The data from the study revealed that females education greatly engender empowerment.  It gives women the opportunity to work outside  the home and acquire diverse skills and useful ideas both from books and colleagues which are capable of strengthening their relationship with their husbands, in-laws and eve children.  This affects their ability to enhance family welfare, health and nutrition and perhaps female participation in reproductive decision-making within the home.  Educated women marry late and are more likely to have fewer children.  This suggest that to reduce family size, we have to concentrate on and encourage female education.  Although female education has  been encouraged in this part of the country, empirical findings reveal that where the means to train children are scarce, preference is given to male children.  Education of male is also important but education for the women has a greater effect on reducing fertility rate.  Towards this end, massive and compulsory education for the girl-child must be encouraged and sustained by the government at all levels.  Parents should also be encouraged to train the girl-child and if the means are scare to train all children the brilliant ones should be trained irrespective of the sex.  This has become important as some of the respondents argue that female children are even better as old age insurance compared to male children.
 
Aside this, gender equality and women empowerment programmes through public lectures, marital counselling or other enlightenment campaigns should be vigorously pursued because these would improve the living conditions of most people especially those of women and children.  It should be made a vital component of the new population policy.  This calls also for Cairo 1984 international conferences of population and developments (ICPD) plan of action which observed that “advancing of gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women and the elimination of all kinds of violence against women and ensuring women’s ability to control their own fertility are cornerstone of population and development related programmes”.  It is strongly believed that as this differences between the sexes diminishes, women will be able to control their reproductive lives.  This will have effect on maternal and child health, reduce infant mortality and population growth rate.
 
The growing adoption of some of these policies will give a better insight into the relationship between gender and fertility control behaviour.

ATTACHED TABLES:

 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
UrbanRuralMalesFemale 
 %No%No%No%No%No
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)
Total100(575)100592100(572)100(595)100(1167)

Table I: Percentage distribution of the respondents by school attendance.

 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
UrbanRuralMalesFemale 
 %No%No%No%No%No
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)
Total100(575)100592100(572)100(595)100(1167)

Table II: Percentage distribution of respondents by number of years of schooling.

 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
UrbanRuralMalesFemale 
 %No%No%No%No%No
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)
Total100(575)100592100(572)100(595)100(1167)

Table III: Percentage distribution of the respondents by educational attainment.

 Children ever bornIdeal family size
 MaleFemaleMaleFemale
EducationCoftCoftCoftCoft
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
No schooling
.045
.216
.151
.367
1.504
-2.430
-.034
.727
-.831
-.297
5.412
-9.269
.160
.082
0.090
1.581
.701
-1.781
-.105
.311
-.613
-1.574
3.947
-11.651

Table IV: Ordinary least square regression coefficient of children ever born and ideal family size by socio-economic and demographic variables alone.

 Children ever bornIdeal family size
 MaleFemaleMaleFemale
EducationCofTCoftCoftCoft
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
No schooling
-.023
.272
.140
-.174
1.872
-2.218
-.421
-.002
-.916
3.945
-.013
-11.249
.007
.192
.031
.067
1.626
-.604
.080
-.050
-.653
1.347
-.671
-11.360

Table V: Ordinary least square regression coefficient of children ever born and ideal family size by socio-economic and demographic variables with reproductive decision making variables.

REFERENCES

  • Ainsworth, M.K, Beegle and A. Nyameter (1996) “The Impact of Women’s Schooling on Fertility and Contraceptive Use: A Study in fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries” in The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10. No. 1, pp. 81 – 109.
  • Awa, N.O (1996), Educational marginalisation of Girls and Its Counseling Perspective, The Counsellor. 14(2) p. 101 – 105
  • Caldwell, J. (1979) “Education as a Factor in Mortality Decline: An Examination of Niger Delta”. Population Studies (33) p. 45 – 58
  • Croll E. (1995) Changing Attitudes of Chinese Women, London, Zed Books.
  • Conway, J.K. and S.C. Bourgue (1993) “Introduction” in The Politics of Women’s Education, Perspectives from Asia, Africa ad Latin America. Eds. Ann Arbor. University of Michigan Press.
  • Odiagbe, O.S. (2004) Gender Responsibility, Reproductive Decision-making and Fertility Among the Esan People of Nigeria. (Ph.D. Thesis).
  • Okorodudu, R.I. and Igun S.E. (2002) Analysis of Contemporary Trend of Gender Education in Nigeria: Implication for Nation Building: Journal of the Nigerian Sociological Society Vol.1, No. 1. pp 89 – 113
  • Riley, N. (1997), “Gender, Power and Population Change” Population Bulletin, Vol 52, No.1. pp 1 – 52
  • Umar,L.K.K (1996) Education of the Girl-Child in Northern Nigeria. A Case for Counselling: The Counsellor 14(2). Pp 77 – 83

Effective Communication in a Large Class Via C.C.T.V: Lecturers / Students Perception

AGBATOGUN, Alaba .O.
E-mail: alabaagbatogun@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study examined the views of the University of Lagos academic community (lecturers and students) on the use of CCTV for effective communication in large classes. 300 respondents made up of 100 lecturers and 200 students were randomly selected for the purpose of this study. The Lecturers Perception Questionnaire (LPQ) and the Students perception Questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.75 and 0.82 respectively were used for the collection of data. The two null hypotheses generated for the study were tested at 0.05 alpha level using the t-test statistical tool. It was discovered that years of experienced played a major role in the perception of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes. Students and lecturers were found to be positively unanimous in perception on the subject of the study. It was suggested that lecturers should not be phobic about achieving effective communication in large classes; rather, they should focus more on timely utilization of the appropriate technology that can enhance effective communication in large classes.  

Introduction
The phenomenon of large classes is fast becoming the vogue of higher institutions in Africa, if not all over the world. The large class syndrome has been attributed to the expansion in annual students’ enrolment. At any rate, education as old as man has been characterized with mass instruction and this is the peculiarity of large classes in various institutions (Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, 2003). Students, as many as three or four hundred, often cluster  in a small hall tending to pay attention to the “talking and chalking” lecturer who occasionally scribbles on the chalkboard, while it is mostly assumed that, as the lecturer passes the necessary information through verbal means, learning  takes place. Whereas Awoniyi, (1998) found out that in such a situation, much teaching goes on, but little learning takes place with only a few of the students as a result of the gap between the lecturer, the taught and the content.

In a large class, where lecture method is typically the mode of instruction, meeting the needs of the variety of students through effective communication has therefore been found to be a challenge. Though it is often thought that learning occurs in proportion to class size, that is, the smaller the size the more the students learn, however, the size of a class may not absolutely be a predictor of students learning and quality of teaching (Felder, 1997). In essence, there is the need to be conscious of the fact that the key to effective instruction and students learning is effective communication. However, Roger (1995) expressed that in most universities and other higher institutions, large classes are sometimes handled by graduate teaching assistants who have been assumed to know both “what” to teach and “how” best to teach it, despite the fact that most of them enter into teaching without experience. The question that may bother one’s mind is, are these graduate teaching assistants aware of what the students need and expect from classroom communication?

Communication is a vital key to effective teaching and learning, thus the ability of a teacher to effectively convey a concept to the students so as to understand and synthesis what the teacher is presenting is of paramount importance. Ogunsaju (2004) earmarked effective communication as the most viable tool for achieving effectiveness in teaching and learning. There is the need for exchange of meanings to take place between the teacher and learners before communication can be assumed to have taken place. Learning in itself is the resultant effect of effective communication between the teacher and the learner (Andrew, 2000). In his own words, Sleeman (1976) said that effective communication in the classroom exists when there is a good interaction between the learner, the information and the instructor. If the interactive nature must be achieved in a large class, the traditional syndrome of a lecturer talking to a sea of heads seeming to attend his lecture, while many of them engage in other activities other than those related to what is going on in the class, is a  problem that must be attended to. All students, even those with disabilities must have been considered to benefit from the process of teaching and learning before effective communication in teaching can be achieved (Protrowski & Reason (2000) as cited by Norkeliunas 2003). It could be  felt that, one of the primary purposes of effective communication in the classroom is to spark, and guide active mental processing, develop competencies, gain attention and catch the interest of the students when they have access to information and make meanings from such information.

Awoniyi (1998) advocated that, for the quality of education to be improved, technology must be employed. Riesland (2005) was of the opinion that communication; even in the classroom has been positively influenced through the use of appropriate instructional media, at least for the purpose of ensuring that all students benefit from the teaching and learning process. It is worthy of note that in most cases, a scenario of educational environment is not created in large classes because, many students of such large classes turn the back of the class and outside the classroom into market place by chatting and discussing with friends (Valenzi, 1997). No wonder, Adekomi (1999) suggested the need for teachers to have a change of style in order to meet the demands of learners and avoid complaints about poor performance.

In spite of the enormous communicative problems being faced in large classes of various institutions, effective communication can still be achieved through the use of appropriate technology. Innumerable research findings have shown that audio-visual media contribute immensely to learners’ understanding, performance in learning through effective communication (Arthur & Stephen 2003; Awoniyi 1988; Jenkins 1978). It is interesting to know that the speed at which technology is altering classroom communication is alarming, because of the strength it adds to the students and teachers interaction. Riesland (2005) in a study found that students were excited with the idea of content presentation through the visual and sound elements of the media he used. He further reported the overwhelming attention and active participation he received from the students through the audio-visual media. It follows therefore, that the use of Closed-Circuit Television in a large class will create a better interaction between the taught, the content and the teacher.

Oluyitan (1998) described the Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) as a signal received on specific private receiver that can be achieved by direct transmission from the camera to the receiver through a cable system. Marc (2000) explained Closed-Circuit Television as a television broadcasting received only by a selected set and is connected to the source by cable or by over the air signals (those receiving over the air signals are equipped with decodes or adapters). To Marc, this medium is a good tool for achieving effective dissemination of information, skills to learners, even at different locations. Ebert (1998) observed that the use of Closed-Circuit Television increases students’ involvement in learning. Zimmer (2003) remarked that the use of Closed-Circuit Television allows for the incorporation of animation,  moving pictures and sound into the lessons and this encourages students’ interaction with the subject matter. According to him, students irrespective of their location in the  class can watch experiments in action, look microorganisms up close by through the magnification ability of the camera. Information and ideas are conveyed to students quickly. Martyn (1996), Foundation for the Blind Children (2002) Haynes (2005), and Mills (2003), revealed that the auditory and visual capabilities of CCTV, promote acquisition of knowledge, improve understanding and foster student’s ability to learn than the mere use of traditional method of teaching

The use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for instruction in Nigerian institutions is no longer a new thing. For instance, Obafemi Awolowo University (then University of Ife), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Distance Learning Institute, and College of Medicine of University of Lagos, Yaba, Akoka, Lagos-State  make use of CCTV for instructional purposes, in the classrooms, and laboratories. Few studies have been conducted on the use of technological devices such as television, video recorder and Television as well as audio-visual media to enhance and facilitate learners’ performance (Norkeliunas, 1995; Valenzi, 1997; Yiu, 2000). This study is a survey of perception of lecturers and students on effective communication in large class via the use of Closed-Circuit Television (C.C.T.V.)

Hypotheses
For the purpose of this study, two hypotheses were formulated:
There will be no significant difference between the perception of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes.
There will be no significant difference between the perception of the lecturers and the students about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes.
 
Method of study
Sample:  
The sample for this study was 200 undergraduate students and 100 lecturers drawn from the Distance Learning Institute, and the faculty of Education of the University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos.  56 students, 24 lecturers and 144 students, 76 lecturers were randomly selected respectively from the Distance Learning Institute, and the Faculty of Education of the University.
Instrumentation:
The instruments used to collect data for this study were the Lecturers Perception Questionnaire (LPQ) and the Students Perception Questionnaire (SPQ).  The instruments were designed on 4-point Likert type scale of SA, A, SD, D, and each of the instruments consists of two sections. Section A of each instrument consists of 18 items, while Section B consists of related demographic information of the respondents. Lecturers with years of teaching experience below seven years (7) were grouped as low experienced lecturers, while those with seven years and above working experience were categorized as high experienced lecturers. However, Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the instruments yielded 0.75 (LPQ) and 0.82 (SPQ). Three educational technologists carried out both the face and content validity of the instruments.
Procedure:
The questionnaires were administered on one hundred lecturers and two hundred students with the help of two research assistants. The administered questionnaires were collected back within two weeks and were later scored. Meanwhile, the data collected through the questionnaire was analysed using independent t-test statistics
Result:
Table 1: T-test on perceptions of less and highly experienced lecturers on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication.

GROUPNXδ
Lecturers10013.601.65
Students20013.691.59


 
The results in Table 1 is highly revealing in that, there exist significant difference in the opinions of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in large classes. The calculated t-value of 2.73 was found to be greater than the t-tabulated value of 1.98. Thus the first hypothesis, which states that “there will be no significant difference  between the perceptions of the less and highly experienced lecturers on the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large class” is rejected.

Table 2: T-test on the perceptions of lecturers and students, on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication.

GROUPNXδ
Lecturers10013.601.65
Students20013.691.59


 
The results on Table 2 show that there is no significant difference in the perceptions of lecturers and students on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in large  classes. The calculated t-value of 0.323 was found to be less than the t-tabulated value of 1.98. Thus, hypothesis two which states that there will be no significant difference between the perceptions of the lecturers and the students on the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large class is accepted.

Discussion
It is obvious from the findings of this study that years of experience played a major role in the difference in the opinions of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in a large class.

Among the lecturers, 62.5% of them who were highly experienced on the job attested to the fact that, the CCTV is a good tool for enhancing and achieving effective communication in large classes. The perceptions of the less experienced lecturer contradicts the finding of Norkeliunas (1995) who recorded immeasurable high level of effective communication with the use of CCTV in teaching Russian language within his early six years as a lecturer. However, this finding of  Norkeliunas corroborates with the findings of some other researchers such as (Ebert 1998; Zimmer 2003), and the perception of the highly experienced lecturers used for this study. Therefore, one may be tempted to say that; the difference in the perceptions of the two groups of the Nigerian lecturers used for this study could be as a result of their exposure to the use of technological devices for instruction, which is relatively affected by their years of experience.
 
Another major finding of this study is that, there was an agreement between the perception of the students and the lecturers (highly experienced). They both agreed that the use of Closed-Circuit Television in a large class produces effective communication. The result on Table 2 therefore tallies with the findings of Nathanael, (1998) and Smith (1990).

The opinions of Norkeliunas (2003) and Davis (1991) that the audio and visual presentation of CCTV in a large class keep the students alerted and focused, was corroborated in this study. However, the perception of lecturers and  students that CCTV is highly efficient in large classes for achieving effective communication is supported emphatically by the findings of Yiu (2000) and Chester (2000) which revealed that students can give feedback, reactions or even answers to the lecturer’s questions in their different locations via the Public Address System (PAS) that is connected to the CCTV system. To Yiu and Chester, students access to the screen gives an opportunity to the lecturers to inform, instruct and communicate with the entire class easily.
 
Conclusion
Large number of students’ enrolment in higher institutions is becoming unavoidable, especially in Nigeria. The desire to meet the needs of all the students in such large classes through effective communication should not be an issue for discussion but rather a challenge that must be addressed adequately and given necessary positive approach. The idea that effective communication is unachievable has been proved to be obnoxious, because the potency of the efficiency of Closed-Circuit Television for achieving effective communication in large class has been authenticated in this study. Whatever the feelings of individuals, it should be accepted that technology has come to play central role of information and communication between instructor, the content and the students. There is therefore, the need to enlighten, and sensitize the lecturers of large classes about CCTV as a “magic wizard” that can be used to improve the quality of communication, open up communication among students and lecturers.
 
Recommendations
As a result of the outcomes of this study, it is therefore recommended that lecturers of large classes should discard the notion that effective communication is not achievable with large number of students; rather they should focus more on the utilization of the appropriate technology that can enhance effective communication in large class. We are of the view that, if lecturers are taken through the operation and the use of technology in education during seminars and workshops they will be more equipped with information, strategies and skills that will help them to overcome the challenges of large classes. There is need for Nigerian University authorities to find means of providing alternative electric power supply because of the erratic and epileptic nature of national power supply which could in no small way jeopardize the effective use of C.C.T.V.

References

  • Adekomi, A.A. (1998). A handbook of educational communication and technology. Ondo: Complete Computer Services.
  • Andrew, A. N. (2000). Instructional communication for effective teaching in University education. Kaduna: BI-SHAANN.
  • Arthur, W. C. & Stephen, C. E. (2003). Implementing the seven principles: Technology aspect. Retrieved 11th July, 2005, from http://www.iltgroup.org/programs/seven.html
  • Awoniyi, AA. (1998). Audio-visual in the classroom. In Ogunranti, A. (ed), Problems and prospects of educational technology in Nigeria, (pp 138 – 152). Ibadan: Heinemann.
  • Buzzard, J., Macleod , L. & De Witt, C. W. (2003). Enhancing students learning through Electronic Communication Technologies. Retrieved on 13th July, 2005, from http://www.mtsu.edu/~ itconf/proceed 97/buzzard.html
  • Centre for  the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, (2003). Mass- instruction techniques. Retrieved 11th November,2003 from http://www 2.rgu.ac uk/subj/eds//pgcert/selecting 5.htm
  • Chester, G. (2000). Using Electronic mail (e-mail) in the classroom. Retrieved on 14th July, 2005, from http://www.uncw.edu/cte/et/articles/goodwin
  • Ebert, A. (1998). Large lecture undergo technological advancements. Retrieved 11th March, 2004, from http://www.kstatecollegian.com/issue
  • s/v102/sp/n114/news/cam_ed/learnin g_ebert.htm
  • Felder, R.M. (1997). Beating the number game: effective teaching in large classes. Retrieved on 11th November, 2003 from http://www.iste.org/inhouse/publications/jrte/34/4/abstracts/christensen.cfm?=JRTE_34_4
  • Foundation for the Blind Children, (2002). Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) magnifications systems. Retrieved on 20th November, 2003 from http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/magnification/03.html
  • Haynes, J. (2005). Keys to effective communication. Retrieved on 24th July, 2005, from http://www.gesl.net/inservices/keys_effective_communication_91344.php
  • Jenkins, J. (1978). Do audiovisual media possess unique teaching capabilities? In Courrier, K. (ed), the educational use of mass media, (pp 11- 25). New York: Longman.
  • Marc, S. (2000). Television. New York: The H. W. Wilson
  • Martyn, W. (1996) Making meaning from multimedia. Retrieved on 11th March 2004, from http://.education.au.edu.au/achives/cp/REFS/wild_multimedia.html.
  • Nathanael, W. (1998). The CCTV: A personal perspective. Retrieved on 11th March, 2004, from http://wwwcctv.psu.edu/perspective.com.html
  • Norkeliunas, C.J. (1995). Transition from multimedia materials to interactive videotape in teaching Russian culture and language. Retrieved on 20th November, 2003, from http://www.nwrel/scpd/sirs/5/C410.htm.
  • Ogunsaju, S.A. (2004). A guide to school effectiveness in Nigeria. Ibadan: Laville publications.
  • Oluyitan, F. (1998). Instructional television (ITV)- Principles of effective utilization. In Ogunranti, A. (ed), problems and prospects of educational technology in Nigeria (pp 252 – 256). Ibadan: Heinemann.
  • Roger, S. (1995). How effective communication can enhance teaching at the college level. Retrieved on 27th
  • July, 2005, from http://www. ericdigests.org/1996-1/level.htm
  • Riesland, E. (2005)  Visual literacy and the classroom. Retrieved on 11th July, 2005, from http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/literacy/riesland.htm
  • Sleeman, P. J. (1979). Instructional media and technology. New York: Longman inc.
  • Valenzi, K. (1997). Raymond Bice: tinkering with technology for over 50 years. Retrieved on 20th November, 2003, from http://www.nwrel/scpd/sirs/5/C410.htm.Yiu, S. (2000). The advantages and disadvantages of multimedia in teaching. Retrieved on 11th March, 2004, from http://www.rcss.ed.ac.uk/SLIM/private/phase3/m.m.html
  • Zimmer, J.E. (2003). Teaching effectively with multimedia. Retrieved on 20th November, 2003 from http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=87

Post Graduate Studies

AIMS AND  OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of School of Postgraduate Studies in this University shall be the further development in Graduate Students the spirited of enquiry through training in research in  an atmosphere of intellectual independence and individual creativity with a strong sense of group co-operation. In pursuit of these objectives, teacher and students constitute a single team in a well defined and purposeful endeavour.
Impuissance of these objectives is the fostering, through instruction, of deeper understanding of elementary concepts and an increasing ability to apply fundamental ideas to new problems. The students in the School of Postgraduate Studies must, therefore, be made to realize quite early that his intellectual growth and subsequent success are directly related to the depth of his command of basic principle. Hence, although graduate studies are usually associated with high degree of specialization, such specialization is or must be secondary to extending mental horizons, producing new orientations, and developing a depth of understanding. With the context of the above general objectives, graduate studies in the University shall pursue two particular in orientation. Thus, it must seek to:

  • provide facilities for training in research for those whose future careers will be in teaching and research at the University level and for those who may have to operate in research and development situations in the public or private inspectors, e.g. in government, commercial and industrial concerns  and
  • provide both short and long term training facilities aimed at improving and upgrading the existing and potential high level manpower needed for planning, executing and reviewing national development plans.

DEPARTMENTS
The School of Post Graduate Studies has a number of departments that offer various post graduate diploma, masters degree and doctorate programmes. Below is a list of the departments, click on any department to view the courses it offers.

  1. Agricultural Economics and Extension
  2. Animal Science
  3. Architecture
  4. Biochemistry
  5. Botany
  6. Chemistry
  7. Civil Engineering
  8. Commercial and Property Law
  9. Crop Science
  10. Curriculum and Instruction
  11. Economics
  12. Educational Foundations
  13. Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  14. English
  15. Geography and Regional Planning
  16. History and International Studies
  17. Mathematics
  18. Mechanical Engineering
  19. Medical Laboratory Sciences
  20. Microbiology
  21. Modern Languages
  22. Philosophy
  23. Physical and Health Education
  24. Physics
  25. Physiology
  26. Political Science
  27. Production and Material Engineering
  28. Public Administration
  29. Public and International Law
  30. Religious Management and Cultural Studies
  31. Sociology
  32. Soil Science
  33. Zoology


ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

A)   Master’s Degree Programme
Candidates who possess any of the following qualification may be considered for admission.

  1. At least a Second Class Honour Degree of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma or of any other University of recognized standing in the elegant discipline  
  2. Holders of FIMLS Certificate in Science related areas may be considered for Graduate programmes in some Science Department.
  3. Holders of HND Upper Credit with relevant post NYSC working experience plus a Pass in the Nigerian Society of Engineers Graduateship Examinations OR Holders of Pos-Graduate Diploma in Engineering of any recognized University with at least a credit level pass may be considered by the Faculty of Engineering and Technology
  4. For Master in Public Administration (MPA), Holder of a Second Class Bachelor’s Degree in any discipline or HND plus Postgraduate Diploma in any discipline with at least 3 year working experience may be considered.
  5. Holders of LL.B. Third Class Honour and a B.L. as well as five year post call may be considered for the LL.M.
  6. For M.Sc.(Architecture) aside (1) above, a holder of the B.Sc. Third class Honour (Architecture) or its equivalence may be considered after up-dating his/her portfolio within a minimum period of one year and successfully going through an interview conducted by the Department of Architecture.


Note:
Candidate in (ii) & (iii) above, shall be required to take Remedial courses at the Undergraduate level which must be passed before proceeding to the Master’s degree programme.

B)   Ph.D. Programme
A graduate of Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma or of any other University of recognized standing who possesses a degree of Masters appropriate to the intended course may be considered for admission.

C)   Post-Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE)
A graduate of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma or any other University of recognized standing who possesses a first degree classification acceptable to Senate.

D)   Post-Graduate Diploma in Engineering (PGDENG)
Holders of good HND/HNC in Engineering with at least 4 tears post qualification cognate experience or Graduates in fields relevant to Engineering of any recognized University may be considered for admission.

E)   Post-Graduate Diploma in Public ADMINISTRATION (PGDPA)
A Graduate of any recognized University in any discipline OR Holders of HND in any discipline with at least three (3) years cognate experience may be considered.

F)   Post-Graduate Diploma in Business Administration (PGDBM)
Candidates who possess any of the following qualifications may be considered for admission into the programme
A third class honours degree in Business Management
Holders of HND in any discipline from a recognized institution.


TYPE OF ADMISSION

Full-Time Admission:
Full-Time admission can be offered only to candidates who satisfy the School of Postgraduate Studies that they are not in employment, or do not undertake full-time programme elsewhere. Candidates found to have made false declaration in this regard shall be asked to withdraw from the University.

Part-Time Admission:
Candidates, if they are working elsewhere and can satisfy th e School of Postgraduate Studies that facilities for their work as par-time students are adequate. Candidates applying for part-time registration may be asked to show evidence of release by their employers.

Admission to Remedial Courses:
Candidates who satisfy the minimum entry requirement but found deficient in the specific areas of study may be required to undergo remedial courses to prepare them for the main programme.

Staff Candidate:
A full-time member of staff of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma may be admitted to a higher degree in accordance with the regulations subject to the following conditions:

  • The member of staff must meet the normal requirements for eligibility to pursue a programme of Graduate Studies in the area of his choice.
  • The member of staff must pay 50% of the approved fees.
  • Where a person who has been a candidate under this Regulation ceases to be a member of staff of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and he intends to continue with the programme, he would be treated as non-staff; and would therefore be subject to payment of full fees and other charge as may be applicable from time to time.

Where a Candidate was admitted to the Graduate programme before becoming a member of staff of the University, he would be required to pay full fees prior to his assumption of duty. There after he would be required to 50% of the approved fees.


DURATION OF THE PROGRAMME

Postgraduate Diploma Programmes
(a)    Full-time Diploma      –    2 Semesters
(b)    Part-time Diploma     –    4 Semesters
(c)    Sandwich                 –    2 Long vacations of 8 weeks each.

In the case of (a) above, there shall be a Six week, period of internship during which students shall undertake supervise detaching practice.
Master’s Degree Programme

  • FULL-TIME Master’s by course work, thesis/Dissertation and oral examination a minimum of 2 semesters and a maximum of 4 semesters. Extension may be allowed for not more than one semester only.
  • Part-time master’s by course work, thesis/Dissertation and oral examination a minimum of 4 semesters and a maximum of 8 semesters. Extension may be allowed for not more than two Semesters only.

Ph.D. Programme

  • Full-time – A minimum of 4 semesters beyond the master’s degree and a maximum of 6 semesters.
  • Part-time – A minimum of 8 Semesters beyond the master’s degree and a maximum of 12 Semesters.

The Role of 2007 General Election in Meeting Nigerians’ Socio-Economic Aspirations

Dr. O. J.  Imahe and Prof. F. E.   Iyoha

Introduction
The 2007 General election is the people’s hope, and it is up to the parties and their elected candidates to see that it ensures a peaceful co-existence and provides an enabling socio-economic environment that will favour all-round human development. It is pertinent to mention that elections in the country so far have not been able to adequately reflect the manifestoes/programmes and the promises of the parties/elected public officers. As a result they had always failed to meet the socio-economic aspirations of the Nigerian people. We are all aware of the general apathy on the part of the electorate following the previous experience of past elections where the elected and their parties were not able to fulfill their mandate or even meet the basic socio-economic demands of the people.

However, there is no doubt that the poor records of performance of past elected public office holders can be attributed to the inherently pervasive corruption, lack of public accountability, diversion of public resources to private use, priorities that are not development oriented, absence of transparency in decision making, top-down method of policy formulation among others. The effects of the aforementioned manifestations are obvious. They create an environment that does not make for socio-economic development, undermine government’s authority over the citizenry, and raise economic costs of utilities of projects. A common place experience of Nigerians in the past administration were large fiscal deficits (spending more vis-à-vis dwindling revenue) reduction in savings, investment and output of public investment, yawning income gap and more Nigerians becoming poor, poor incentives for hard work, low attraction of foreign investors, poor incentive to local entrepreneurs, and poor delivery of essential public utilities (Bello – Imam and Obadan, 2004). The above-mentioned problems have brought unwarranted socio-economic deprivation and setback among Nigerians despite the vast and rich natural and human resources of the Nigerian state.

Nigerians’ Socio-economic Problems
It is very glaring that despite the fact that Nigeria has great natural and human resources, it is poor and limited in the level of socio-economic development. Given Nigeria’s trend of socio-economic growth and development, it is already being foreseen that it is among the countries that are not able to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

(a) Poverty
Poverty is a deadly socio-economic phenomenon that manifests in a people’s inability to acquire the basic necessities of life (such as food, clothing and shelter) needed for a decent living (Nigerian Economic Society, 1997). It has progressively remained a major socio-economic problem in Nigeria for decades now.

About 2/3 of Nigerian population is poor. Available statistics show that poverty rate moved from 27 percent in 1980 to 66 percent in 1996 and from 1999 to 2005 it has remained in the neighborhood of 70 percent. (National Planning Commission, 2004)

Other indicators of poverty in Nigeria reveal that:

  • Only 10 percent of Nigerians have access to essential drugs
  • Physician/Nigerians ratio is not as much as 30: 100.000;
  • About 5% have HIV/AIDS and are dying without probable cure and affordable suppression drugs’
  • About 30% of the Nigerian children are underweight;
  • About 40% of Nigerian children have never been immunized;
  • About 29% of Nigerians live in areas prone to flooding every year.

The main cause of poverty among others is inadequate economic growth. The inadequacy is further compounded by the fact that the economy depends on crude oil for its major revenue generation. Even when there were (are) windfalls in oil revenues, the government(s) always failed to manage the accruing earnings in a manner that would ensure sustainable socio-economic development.

(b) Unemployment
Unemployment is another hydra-headed socio-economic problem in Nigeria. Unemployment among the higher-grade workers (such as professionals and executive cadre) and lower grade workers are on the increase in the country. In the report of the Central Bank of Nigeria (2004) the number of registered unemployed in the professionals and executive cadre rose significantly by 443.5%. There is no doubt that the general retirement, retrenchment of workers due to public enterprises downsizing, privatization, restructuring and Bank Recapitalization/Restructuring are major contributors to the increased volume of unemployment in Nigeria. A further desegregation revealed that unemployment rate are highest in the rural areas, among age group 15-24 years, and among secondary school leavers. Unemployment leads to untold social vices in the country; such as robbery, youth restiveness, “419” and sharp practices.

(c) Consumers Prices/Inflation
The inability of any one to pay for his basic needs in life constitutes poverty. The prices for non-food and food components of the Nigerian price indices are on the increase with that of the latter more than the former. The Central Bank of Nigeria (2005) reported that inflationary pressure has been moderated in 2004, but the effect did not trickle down to the Nigerians in such a way as to positively impact on their socio-economic development. The non-food produce is also responsible for the increasing rate of inflation. The increasing demand for non-food components such as kerosene, cooking gas, petrol, motor cars, furniture and fittings, clothing, telephone services, education and leisure and recreational activities is associated with rising inflation in Nigeria.
The sustained double digits inflation has resulted in sharp rises in the level and cost of living, which in turn reduces the general standard of living of Nigerians. Low standard of living in Nigeria is a causal factor for low life expectancy.

(d) Purchasing Power of Nigerians
Statistics reveal that the purchasing power of Nigerians has been largely eroded. The income of lower (GLO1), middle (GLO8) and upper (GLO15) wage earners in the public sector dropped by 64%, 55% and 63% between 2004 and 2005, respectively. Given the fact that the government is the greatest employer of labour in Nigeria, the human development risk of the low wages is very high for the citizenry. Another issue worthy of note in the worsening purchasing power of Nigerians, is the devaluation of the Naira vis-à-vis other international currencies particularly, the American dollar, British pound and the Euro.

(e) Savings and Investment
Poor saving in Nigeria is the bane of socio-economic development. It has been acknowledged that Nigerians have low marginal propensity to save which in turn leads to, low level of investment (National Planning Commission, 2004). The low level of saving/investment relationship provides explanation for the low productivity growth in Nigeria since the 1980s, which has deprived the nation of both the tools and technologies that help to promote human development.

(f) Political Instability and Internal Security
In Nigeria, this issue has caused international disaffection to the extent that it has often led to sanctions from developed economies of the world (Imahe, 2000). One would have taught that with the disappearance of military governance devoid of democratic processes, the country would start to enjoy some favour from international communities with the cooperation of the domestic front. Even with our experience of the successive democratic governments in Nigeria, the low image of Nigerians in the international communities still subsists as a result of pervasive corruption, lack of accountability, lack of transparency, socio-religious crises, ethno-political violence, youth restiveness, kidnapping of foreign oil workers, arm robbery, fraud and activities of “419”, canalization of oil pipe lines, fake drugs, drugs trafficking, etc.

The fall – out of the above are:
Low trust for political office holders,
The country became vulnerable to the control of power play in the international communities.

Education
The overall policy thrust of the present administration with respect to education seeks to increase enrolment in all tiers of education, improve the quality of education; use education for human capital development etc. and the stated strategies to achieve them are laudable in context. However, governments over the years have not been able to demonstrate a consistent commitment to the cause of education they were trying to champion. A cursory look at the present state of affairs in the three levels of education in Nigeria reveals shocks of acute shortages of infrastructural facilities, equipment and materials, and manpower, which are the bane of the poor financial commitment to education system. The significant role of education in overall socio-economic development in Nigeria is very unique, and as such the right approach to achieve the best result should be adopted. Quality in education has been compromised at all levels due to dearth of necessary input, infrastructure, and poor commitment to it.

Health / Water Services
The Federal Government seems to have recorded improvement in health sector in 2005. Government commenced the construction of 200 model healthcare centres across the country. Also, the National Immunization of children against polio and other killer diseases recorded appreciable success. Apart from these improved performance, Nigeria’s General Hospitals, Health Care Centres, Maternities and Healthcare outfits are starved of essential drugs and materials, radiographic equipment, functional mortuaries, screening equipment, requisite number of nurses, chemists, laboratory technicians, doctors, midwives, and administrative staff. The shortcomings of our health sector outlined above make the preference for private hospital commonplace. In Nigeria only about 60 percent of the people have access to safe water in the urban areas, and it is far less in the rural areas (50 percent).

Transportation
In 2004, the number of people injured in road accident increased by 4.1 percent coupled with 5.8 percent increase in the number of persons killed in road accident. There is no gainsaying these facts if we think of the deplorable conditions of Nigerian roads presently.

On the other hand, traveling by air became hazardous, given the repeated disasters in domestics airlines. In 2005, there was a phenomenal decrease in demand and it fell by 58.6 percent over the previous year. In the same vein, foreign airlines service demand also suffered the same phenomenal decrease. Further more, railway service demand also depicted a very poor performance in Nigeria to the extent that the passenger carriage dropped by 81.5 percent. It is worthy of note that rail transportation is supposed to be the cheapest, and hence, should have attracted the highest patronage among Nigerians. The problem of railway service is of two folds in Nigeria, namely; the smallness in coverage and poor development of the system.
 
Conclusion
The 2007 General Election will be an acid test on public office holders as to whether they wish to sustain the evolving democratic governance in Nigeria or not.  Nigeria will not be patient with any other regime that will toil with or compromise their socio-economic aspirations. The solution to the identified socio-economic problems will directly impact on the quality of life of Nigerians.  The election should result in a government that holds welfare, health, education, employment, accountability, transparency, political empowerment, and narrowing of income gaps, sacrosanct.

Recall that the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) is replete with defined approaches of attacking each of these socio—economic problems discussed above.  This paper deposes that the NEEDS document will be of paramount importance (given its policy thrust) in proffering solution to the socio-economic problems in Nigeria. However, the selected public officers will go a long way in meeting the socio-economic aspirations of Nigerians if the following are given serious consideration:
People must decide or participate in any policy formulation   and implementation on issues affecting their socio-economic aspirations.
People must participate in choosing who occupies any position of service. People must be involved in deciding how the scarce resources are allocated and utilized.

Whereas during past administration, it became increasingly difficult for public office holders to appreciate accountability and transparency, the case must be different this time. All public office holders must be accountable to the people in spending public funds. The role of Civil Society in policy formation and implementation should be recognized and taken advantage of at any time.

The 2007 General Election should raise Nigerians’ confidence that the implementation of parties’ agenda reflects the electorates’ demand for their socio-economic emancipation at the point of voting. It is possible for the 2007 General Election to meet Nigerians’ socio-economic aspirations if elected public officers work to restore the eroded trust in government as a facilitator of human development.

Bibliography

  • Bello Imam, I.B. and Obadan, M.I. (2004)   “The Prologue.”  Democratic Governance and Development Management in Nigeria 4th  Republic 1999-2003.Ibadan: Jodad Publishers.                                            
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International Journal of Governance and Development – Volume 3 No. 1

International Journal Of Governance And Development

 Volume 3 No. 1, March, 2007
ISSN 1597-1740

Published by
Institute for Governance and Development,
Ambrose Alli University,
P. M. B. 14, Ekpoma, Edo State,
Nigeria

(With funding from The Ford Foundation, New York, USA)
International Journal of Governance and Development

(C) Copyright 2007 by Institute for Governance and Development

All Rights Reserved.
No part of this journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or means, electronic or mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher or copyright owner.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Prof. F.E. Iyoha
Director, Institute for Governance and Development,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.
Editorial Board

Prof. J.O. Ihonvbere,
President, African Center for Constitutional Development,
Former Special Adviser to The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on Project Monitoring and Evaluation.

Emeritus Prof. Dilys M. Hill
University of Southampton,
England.

Prof. George Klay Kieh, Jnr.
Morehouse, Atlanta,
Georgia, USA.

Prof. B.E. Aigbokhan,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Prof. S.O. Uniamikogbo,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Prof. J.B. Longe,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Prof. V.O. Aghayere,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Prof. P. O.  Agbese,
University of Iowa,
Cedar Falls, USA.

Prof. S.O.J. Ojo,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Dr. A.U. Omoregie,
Ambrose Alli University,
Ekpoma.

Dr. A.S. Adagbonyin,
Ambrose Alli University,
 Ekpoma.

Dr. Rajalakshmi Mishra,
Institute of Public Enterprise,
Osmania University, India.

Dr. P. Eya,
Enugu State University of Science & Technology,
(ESUT), Enugu.

Dr. E.E. Oyibo,
Delta State University,
Abraka.

Dr. A.O. Oronsaye,
University of Benin,
Benin City.

 
CONTRIBUTORS

Dr. J. U. Azelama,
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

Hon. Wilson Ogieva,
Commissioner for Local Government and
Chieftaincy Affairs,
Ministry of Local Government and
Chieftaincy Affairs,
Benin City

Dr. O. J. Imahe,
Department of Economics,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

Prof. F. E. Iyoha,
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

Dr. S. K. Omorogbe,
Department of Sociology,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

Dr. M. E. Orobor,
Institute of Education,

Prof. V. O. Aghayere,
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

Prof. (Mrs.) C. A. Agbebaku,
Faculty of Law,

Dr. P. E. Agbebaku,
Department of Political Science,
Faculty of Social Sciences,

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Role of 2007 General Elections in Meeting Nigerian Democratization and other Political Aspirations – Dr. J. U. Azelama and Hon. W. Ogieva    …
The Role of 2007 General Elections in Meeting Nigerians’ Socio-economic Aspirations – Dr. O. J. Imahe and Prof. F. E. Iyoha

The Role of 2007 General Elections In Meeting Nigerian Democratization and Other Political Aspirations

Dr. Julius Uduimho Azelama and W. Ogieva

Introduction
This article adopts descriptive analysis in the identification of Nigerian democratisation and other major current political aspirations. It adopts the same method in examining the role of the 2007 General Elections in meeting these aspirations. The analysis recognizes the impracticability of a watertight compartmentalization of this election as the only one that is aimed at meeting the identified aspirations. It recognizes the past and future general elections as equally expected to attain the goals or consolidate the ones already attained.

The second segment after introduction clarifies the terms, democracy and democratization and it discusses democratization as a major current Nigerian political aspiration. It also identifies and discusses other prominent current Nigerian political aspirations. The third segment focuses on the role of the 2007 general elections in meeting the Nigerian major political aspirations. Democratization is derived from the term democracy. An explanation of the meaning of democracy therefore may facilitate understanding of democratization.   

Democracy is a system of governance in which, through elections and persistent checks, the people utilize their political power to choose who occupy the various political roles or positions; remove any political office holder from office at will, determine which law or public policy gets made, unmade and reviewed; and determine as well as control every governmental practice including the spending of every kobo of the public funds or the people’s money.

Democracy is a reversal of dictatorship.  In dictatorship the power to play the roles identified here as played by the people is held by the dictator who may be a colonizer, military ruler, monarch, religious leader, elder, or civilian ruler imposed through corrupt electoral process, etc. Many Nigerian pre-colonial societies practiced African democratic centralism, which did not include elective principles, constitutional development, increasing adequate people’s participation in politics and increasing the role of civil society to make the legislature, executive and the political parties answerable to the people. Democratization is a systematic change from dictatorship to democracy resulting in political empowerment of the people. Ogbonnaya and Ofoeze (1994) attempted a theoretical explanation of sources of democratization forces in Africa.

The direction of democratization forces may be bottom to top when led by the civil society; top to bottom when conflicts among the political elite weaken dictatorship; and externally introduced when forces within the international community weaken dictatorship. These three directions have been experienced in Nigeria.

Democratisation in form of attempts to empower the people by establishing liberal democracy has had three major types in Nigeria. These are decolonisation, demilitarisation and efforts by the people to cease power from post-military “elected” civilian oligarchy. The role of the 2007 general elections in Nigerian democratisation aspiration is to be located primarily in the efforts by the people to cease power from elected civilian oligarchy. It is also relevant in the sustenance of decolonisation and demilitarisation. A good attention is paid to this aspect after discussing other major Nigerian political aspirations. Other major current Nigerian political aspirations will now be brought under focus.

Other Prominent current Nigerian political aspiration
Nation building is a prominent current Nigerian political aspiration.  It is different from national development. It is the second stage of the segments of political development experienced by political systems as put in place by Almond and Powell (1971). These writers argued that many states, in their process of political development experience major problems or challenges in stages. The first is state building that relates to putting in place a state.  In Nigeria, it entailed bringing different nations or ethnic groups under one political umbrella, which the apologists of colonialism argued, was facilitated by colonialism by the western powers. It culminated in the Nigerian state in 1960 with the attainment of political independence.

The second stage is that of nation building.   It relates to building a nation out of the multiplicity of nations or ethnic groups brought together to form a state or a nation-state. Nigerian political development viewed through the lens of these writers is in the stage of nation building. The challenge within this stage is a focus on the minds of the citizens. It entails strategies to make them love their state more than they love their sections of the state or society they belong to. It places macro-nationalism or Pan-Nigerian nationalism over and above micro-nationalism. The challenges relate to how to subsume or accommodate separatist social identities under overriding collective interest. Put simply, it has to do with how to make a Yoruba man, or Ibo man or a Christian, or Muslim, or a party member, member of the military, a professional, an academic, etc. love Nigeria more than he/she loves the sections he/she belongs to.

The third stage in the process of political development is that of managing mass desire of the citizens to participate in working for the state reflected in the desire to occupy political roles. It may be observed that these three stages are not mutually exclusive. So although Nigeria is regarded as being in the stage of nation building it still has state building and mass participation to contend with. These also form, though in a lesser degree, Nigerian current political aspirations.

How to overcome the frightening problem of corruption is one of Nigeria’s current political aspirations. Joseph (1991), Salami (1994), Lewis (1996), Bello-Imam (2004) and Akanbi (2004) have identified corruption as frustrating various facets of Nigerian developmental efforts, including meeting Nigerian political aspirations.  So it is a major Nigerian political aspiration to redeem Nigeria from the slavery of corruption.  For the political institutions, political processes, policy making and implementation bodies, the judiciary, etc to function adequately corruption must be reduced to the minimum level possible.

Weak civil society is a major political problem in Nigeria.  So it is a major Nigerian political aspiration to build a virile civil society.  Civil society refers to the autonomous groups spread over the space between the private life of the family and the public life of the state.  Bayart (1986), Sales (1991), Narsoo (1991) and Ikelegbe (2001) have emphasized the indispensability of virile civil society in Nigerian democratization.  Inspite of the fact that there are numerous groups within civil society like labour unions, professional bodies, primordial associations, community based associations, students union, etc these bodies fail to actively play their role in establishing democracy in Nigeria.  So the state and many dictators, politicians, etc, have a field day in imposing rules, enacting lawlessness, spending public funds without accountability to the people, enacting various forms of electoral corruption, etc.

Making and implementation of Socio-economic and political public policies to provide solutions to different problems facing Nigerians come under Nigerian political aspirations.  Politically determined structures, processes and policies are required to provide solutions to Nigerian problems of poverty, low standards of living, poor health facility, grossly inadequate social amenities, and crisis in our value system, poor education system, high level of crime, etc.

In recent times, Nigeria has suffered from different forms of internal conflict and some with a high level of hostility.  Prominent among them are religious conflict, electoral violence, political conflict, violence due to cultism, resource conflict like the Niger Delta conflict, ethnic conflict, etc.  There have also been in the past, a high level of extra-judicial killings, political thuggery, politically instigated assassinations, and other forms of political violence.  Perhaps Benin City has occupied the inglorious first position in superstition instigated lynching of the poor accused of witchcraft.  There have also been rampant cases of the poor losing their lives due to pipeline vandalization spearheaded by the political and economic elite.  There are armed robbery and other forms of violence.  It is the political aspiration of Nigeria that these violence and hostilities should end by the state playing its primary role of providing adequately for people’s security and welfare.

Rapid federalization may also be regarded as Nigerian political aspiration. Regionalization was introduced in Nigeria with operation of the 1946 Richards Constitution and it was maintained in the 1951 Marcpherson Constitution.  It led to establishment of colonial federalism when the Lytleton Constitution came into force in 1954.  At independence, Nigeria adopted federalism.  Since then, apart from Ironsi regime, which flirted with the unitary system, Nigeria, even under Military rulerships, has regarded itself as a federal state.  Yet the federating units operate with a high level of mutual suspicion.  A sluggish pace of federalization characterizes this.  Rapid federalization is required to develop from a dual-federalism to a co-operative federalism or interdependent federalism, (Watt, 1979).  The irrepressible and unending calls for a sovereign national conference may represent dissatisfaction with Nigerian federalism.  Both constitutional redesign of such federalism and allowing a process of evolution of co-operation among the federating units are continuous development of federalism.  They both constitute a Nigerian political aspiration.

It is a Nigerian political aspiration, as a member of the international community, to enjoy mutual benefit and respect from other members.  In the past decades, Nigerian national prestige in the international community has suffered.  This has been due to Nigerian dwindling economic fortunes at home, indecent behaviour of many Nigerians who go abroad in an effort to meet the basic necessities and the unflattering reports about socio-political practices of many Nigerian public office holders.
 
The 2007 General Elections and Nigerian Political Aspirations
The Nigerian democratization and other major political aspirations have been identified.  This segment concerns itself with the relevance of the general elections to meeting these aspirations.

The 2007 general elections are relevant to meeting Nigerian democratic aspirations in many ways.  The most prominent of them are summarized here.  A successful conduct of the election particularly when Nigerians and the international community expects to see it as free and fair means a continuation of the process of democratization.  It follows then that the elections are a parameter for measuring the extent of Nigerian democratization.  The elections offer an opportunity for strengthening, developing and testing Nigerian democratization institutions, process and activities.  The legislatures, executives, the judiciary, the press, the political parties, the civil society, the constitution, the public service, the traditional rulers, the various security bodies, Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), academia, etc are on duty and show-cased during the elections.  Also on duty and show-cased is the electoral process.  This includes registration of voters, delimitations of constituencies, voting, counting of votes, release of results, handling of election petition, etc.  The elections help to develop these institutions and processes and also show their level of development.  The elections offer an opportunity for and are measures of interest aggregation, interest articulation and responsiveness of the Nigerian political system and subsystems.  They also reflect the level of democratization of the political environment, political communication, political education, political mobilization, political socialization and internalization of democratic values.  They gauge the maturity of the three major roles of politics, consultation, negotiation and consensus.

In the area of political development the 2007 general elections have vital roles to play.  The elections offer opportunities for stimulating and facilitating nation building.  Electoral activities reduce ethnic, religious, sectional and north-south mutual suspicion and prejudices.  Positive desire to win elections and allocation of values aid inter-sectional and intra-sectional consultation, negotiation, consensus building, conflict resolution, internalization of national values, outlook and pan-Nigerian nationalism.  Although, the Nigerian sovereignty has been put in place, the elections offer an opportunity for strengthening the fabrics of the Nigerian state as a result of practices already mentioned in relation to nation building.  The elections themselves encourage political participation by politicians, non-partisan politicians, the electorates, the civil society, etc.

The elections offer an opportunity to combat corruption.  Political campaign usually criticizes corruption particularly involving political opponents.  When politicians and political office holders canvass for people’s mandate during elections they declare their stewardship to the people.  They are on trial as they seek to impress and convince the people.  They have to explain allegations of corruption that may be made against them.  Consciousness of stewardship required during the general elections may lead to some politicians exercising restraint in indulging in some corrupt practices.  It is true that Nigeria has experienced a practice of a high level of corruption during elections in the past.  This does not mean that electoral activities have not checked corruption in some areas.  Where elections are free and fair, the civil society plays the role of checking dictatorship and the people are not corrupt, then the general elections become more potent in checking corruption during and after the exercise.  The government knows that the degree of electoral corruption associated with the general elections is a reflection of the honesty of its anti-corruption drive.

Ordinarily the general elections are supposed to galvanize the Nigerian docile and dormant civil society into playing its indispensable role in ensuring good governance, facilitation of democratization, checking corruption and thereby facilitating Nigerian socio-economic development.  The civil society itself is weakened due to non-release of Nigerians from their primordial ties to the public, apathy within the civil society, ignorance of its political role, poverty, corruption and the ease with which it falls prey to politicians.  Every general election is a pull factor, which encourages the civil society to play its role.

The general elections are an opportunity to ensure that appropriate public policies and laws are made to facilitate provision of solutions to Nigeria’s social-economic problems.  When a politician campaigns, he appeals to the people to allow him serve them in a political position.  He is at the same time supposed to offer his party’s manifesto in an exchange for the people’s mandate.  Manifestos are proposed policies and laws to be made to provide solutions to the problems in the society.  A current problem in this facet, however, is that in Nigeria, general elections focus predominantly on recruitment into political roles and positions.  Little attention is paid to manifesto or how to provide solutions to the various Nigerian socio-economic problems.

The 2007 Nigerian general elections are relevant to providing solutions to the problems of conflict, different forms of violence and insecurity in Nigeria.  In the first place, democracy is an instrument of conflict resolution.  This is because it offers an opportunity for contested interests in conflicts to be discussed.  Secondly, politicians know that for them to penetrate different sections of Nigerians for electoral gains they have to adopt effective conflict handling techniques.  During electoral campaigns, parties in conflict are interested in the ways politicians and political parties would like to handle their conflicts if elected.  Electoral political activities include consultation, negotiation and consensus.  These facilitate peace in conflict areas.  Popular governments are suitable conflict handling agents.

Similarly, manifestos of political parties and candidates are expected to include how to provide solutions to problems of insecurity such as armed robbery, cult violence, religious conflict, electoral violence, ethnic conflict, etc.  They are also expected to handle problems in the society that breed insecurity, violence, hostilities and conflict.  It may be observed that the electoral process itself has been characterised by thuggery and violence.  It is expected that the appropriate state institutions and security operatives are adequately prepared to check political violence and hostility in the electoral process for its credibility.

In the area of rapid federalization and development from dual federalism to interdependent or co-operative federalism, the role of the elections in facilitating nation building already discussed in this paper also applies.  Review of constitutive and regulative rules of the game in Nigerian politics can be facilitated by appropriate party manifesto.  Administrative federalism may not even mean changing the rules.  A committed leadership can stimulate it through encouraging the critical groups such as the bureaucrats, political parties, etc to facilitate the process of federalization in Nigeria.

In the area of international relation, no political party can produce a manifesto and leave out this important segment.  So contending manifestos on how to provide solutions to the problems in this area are made available to the electorate to choose from as they vote.

One other important area in which the 2007 general elections relate to Nigerian national prestige in the international community is that the whole world is watching Nigeria.  When we successfully conduct a free, fair and credible election, the Nigerian prestige receives a boost.
 
Conclusion
The major Nigerian political aspirations as the nation state approaches the 2007 general elections are democratization, nation building, strengthening the Nigerian sovereignty, encouraging political participation and combating corruption.  Others are stimulating the civil society to play its unique role in Nigerian developmental efforts, making appropriate and people led policies to provide solutions to Nigerian socio economic and political problems, conflict handling and strengthening security of life and property. Rapid federalization and enhancing Nigerian benefit from its international relation and diplomacy are parts of the aspirations.

To meet these aspirations, the state institutions, political parties, the civil society, the electoral body and other relevant bodies must play their roles adequately.

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