Nigerian Journal Of Educational Research – Volume 7 – No. 1

Volume  7, No. 1, August, 2007

The purpose of the Nigerian journal of educational research (NIJER) is to provide opportunities for the publication of substantial and research papers in the various disciplines in education.

The journal publishes article, which reflect diverse areas of interest to educators, particularly stimulating research study reports, theoretical formations and other related article relevant to education in a socio-cultural system such as Nigeria.  The journal will also publish contributions from other parts of the world.

Normally one issue per year will be published in September

Article, analytical reviews of the literature, and so on, in triplicate should be addressed to the Editor-in-chief and will be assessed for publication.  Guidelines for style, format, and so on are presented for potential contributors at the end of this issue.

Momoh  S.O.  Ph.D.
Institute of Education
Ambrose Alli University

NOTE:  Views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the members of the editorial Board or Institute of Education, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma-Nigeria.

Editor –In –Chief: Prof. M.O. Omo-Ojugo
General Editor: Dr. S.O. Momoh
Associate Editors: Dr. (Mrs.) R.E. Okecha, Dr. (Mrs.) M.O. Asokhia
Business Manager: Dr. F.I. Olusi

Consulting Editors:
Prof. D.I. Denga, University of  Calabar, Calabar
Prof. E.T. Ehiametalor, University of Benin, Benin-City
Prof. E.A. Arubayi, Delta State University, Abraka
Prof. M. Omolewa, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Prof. M.A. Adewole, University of Jos, Jos
Prof. Nduka Okoh, University of Benin, Benin-City.
Pro. D.O. Aigbomian, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

This is announce the call for paper for Vol. 7 no. I of our journal (NIJER).  The journal publishes articles,   which reflect diverse areas of interest to educations and allied particularly stimulating study reports, theoretical formulations and other related articles relevant to education in socio-cultural contribution from other parts of the world. Articles analytical reviews of the literature and so on in triplicate should be addressed to the editor in chief and will be assessed for publication. Article should be in the range of 12-15 pages quarto sheets and generous margin on each page.  Tables chart and which should be typed on separate sheets must be as few as possible.  Reference should conform to the recent APA style. Article should have a title page, which contains only the title of the article.  An abstract of the article should be included which summaries the article in approximately 120-150 words. Assessment fees of #2000.00 should be accompany each of the article contributions/enquires.

Article, papers and request for information should be addressed to;
The Editor –in Chief
Nigerian Journal of Educational Research
Institute of Education
Ambrose Alli University

S.O. Momoh
General Editor

Gender, Educational Attainment and Fertility Among the Esan of Nigeria.


This study was basically interested in the relationship between gender and educational attainment and how this relationship influence fertility among the Esan of Nigeria.  The survey research and focus group discussion were employed to elicit information from the sampled respondents.  Due to the variables under investigation, married couples were systematically sampled from selected clusters, in the area of study.  The Enumeration Area (EAs) demarcated in the 1991 populations census forms the sampling frames.  A total of 660 couples formed the sampled while ten (10) focus group discussion sessions were held.  The study explained that though educational attainment, especially, female education, has inverse relationship with fertility, it does not automatically translate into lower fertility.  Female education was found to encourage participation in family life discussion but decisions are taken by men.  Family planning activities were observed not to be the prerogative of women.  Approval are often sort and obtained from husbands.  It is therefore recommended that while encouraging educational attainment for the girl-child at all levels, men should henceforth be integrated into activities geared towards reducing fertility rate since they play active role in family life decisions.

Demographers are gender sensitive when analyzing fertility as an important component of population growth rate and change.  This sensitivity account for why there is a higher concentration on the absolute number of women, their age, religious affiliation, educational attainment, occupation etc partly because of the understanding that they actually bear the physical ad emotional strain of pregnancy and child birth.  Our attempt here is however to find out the relationship between gender relationship and educational attainment and how this in turn influences fertility in Nigeria.  It is hoped that a study of the different social groups in the country will give an insight into the fertility situation.

Gender is the set of social and cultural practices that influence the lives of men and women in every society. It is central to the way a society is organized.  It orders social relationships in such a way that some individuals have greater powers than others.  Riley (1997:13) holds that gender affects both ‘power to’ and  ‘power over’. ‘Power to’ refers to the ability to act and have access to social resources such as education, money, land or time.  She noted that generally, women  have less ‘power to’ – go to school, inherit land and enter or refuse a marriage.  They have less power compared to the men in family decision and less authority than men in the work place.  Gender influences all aspects of our lives, the schooling we receive, the social roles we play, and the power and authority we command.  The interpretation of this relationship can be influenced significantly by educational attainment.

Education is one of the most important sources of opportunity in any society.  The ability to read and write gives individuals access to a wide body of knowledge.  Formal education and its related activities expose people to social life outside the family and cultural practices elsewhere.  School provides entry into other opportunities such as political office, social pre-eminence and jobs with higher status and better pay.  Riley (1997:51) noted that in nearly all developing countries, women are more likely to be illiterates and to have completed fewer years of education than men.  Relying on United Nations (1995) figures, Riley revealed that illiteracy was higher for women than men among young adults in many countries in the 1990s.  The United Nations data for instance indicate that 55 percent of men in Bangladesh aged between 15 – 24 years were illiterate, 75 percent of women in the same age bracket were.  In the same vein, Croll (1995: 134) has also noted that in China, the number of girls kept out of school to work at home is increasing because of economic reforms.  Girls more than boys are expected by parents to drop out of school to assist in family trade and business and observed that 70% of school-age-drop-out are girls.

This is based partly on the understanding that parents essentially lose their investment in their daughters education.  Conway and Bourgue (1993) are of the view that girls and boys often have very different education experiences in school and the kind of opportunities that schooling provides.  Girls they noted are given less attention inside and outside classroom and when they enter the labour force, women gain a smaller return on their educational achievements than do men.  Umar (1996:14) has noted that though our governments in Nigeria have tried to improve the image of women by introducing programmes aimed at improving the traditional dependence on the female,  our cultures does not place the female as equal to the male.  In a similar manner, Okorodudu and Igun (2002:68) have noted that in Northern Nigeria, cultural practices and religious factors of early marriages and purdan practices have serious consequences for female access to educational facilities.  While relying on data from the Federal Office of Statistics revealed that in 1985 while the literacy rate of men was 40 percent, that of the women was 15 percent.  By the 1990, the literary rate of men improved to 49 percent while those of women was 35 percent.

Based on data from the Federal Ministry of Education in 1994 on primary and secondary school enrolment by gender, Awa (1996:18) showed that there was a consistent evidence on statistical difference between male and female enrolment in primary school.  In 1984/85 session while the rate for the males was 55.7 percent, the female was 44.7 percent.  In 1989/90 session, the rate was now 57 percent for the male while the female was 43 percent.  Two years later in 1992/93 session the rate for male was 52 percent and 48 percent for the females.  This shows that although there was improvement in female enrolment, the disparity was still up to about 4 percent.  For the secondary school, the disparity was wider for the same period.  In 1984/85 while the enrolment rate for the male was 52.5%, it was 47.5 for the females.  This rate increased to 91.9 for the male in 1989/90 session but declined for the females (8 percent).  In 1992/93 session male enrolment was now down to 66 percent and improved to 34 percent for the female.  This disparity also affected the university levels.

What effect has this gender inequality in educational opportunities on fertility?  Riley (1997) has noted that in nearly all societies, the amount of education a woman receives affects the number of children she has and the way she cares for them.   She also associated and observed that children whose mothers completed secondary or higher education are much less likely to be short or under weight for their age than are children with less educated mothers, an indication that they are more likely to receive adequate food.

In a family health survey by Lesetadi et al (1988) and Nigerian Federal Office of Statistics (1990), it was revealed that women’s education influences fertility and child mortality at the societal as well as the individual level.  The conclusion however was that the fertility rate declines as women’s educational level increases, reflecting the usual relationship between education and child bearing of individual women.

The influence of education on demographic process is not limited to what men or women learn in  the classroom.  Women’s education can influence fertility by raising the age at marriage, providing women with new job opportunities, introducing women to new values or ideas.  It can also influence higher socio-economic status, urban living or infant/child mortality.  Women who are more highly educated are more likely to marry and have their first birth later than those with less educational attainment due to the number of years spent during schooling.  This suggest that schooling acts as a catalyst that delays marriage.  Levine et al (1994) also notes that women who attend school learn skills that help them notice and read health messages and make use of health services.  When women attend school, they may learn about new ways to promote sanitation and health for themselves and their children.  Education according to Caldwell (1979) not only change an individual woman’s interaction with institutions, but also change the way other see her and expect her to behave.  Children of educated women are healthier because their mothers are more likely to obtain better health care for their children, even if it means challenging the authority of mother-in-law, husbands or medical personnel.  When women obtain an education they are likely to use their new roles to protect their children.

Inspite of this overall effect of education on fertility, school enrolment for the women still favour the men compared to the women.  What are therefore the factors responsible for this problem? In circumstances where family roles differs and gender inequality visible, can female education automatically translate into lower fertility? Can educated women adopt family planning services for example without the consent of her husband? What is the role of the husband in reproductive decision making inspite of the educational attainment of the wife?  What are the roles of significant others such as the man’s parents, grand parents and the kinsmen in the maintenance of pronatalist culture? How far has the support of high fertility been shaken under the onslaught of modernization and forces of change among the Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria?
These questions translates into these hypotheses

  1. Women’s higher educational attainment inversely affect fertility rates.
  2. There is a relationship between decision making within the home and lower level of adoptions of family planning services by women.
  3. Female autonomy has a positive relationship with lower fertility rate.

Since gender variables are involved in this research, 660 married pairs were sampled.  The Enumeration Areas (EAs) demarcated in the 1991 population censes for the five local government areas that make up the Esan people were used in the study.  There are about 400 or more persons per E.A. Ten EAs were selected at random from each L.G.A. – four from the headquarters (urban) and six from the other villages (rural).  On the whole 50 EAs were randomly selected for the research work.
A sampling frame of households in each EA was drawn up from where systematic samples of households were selected.  Each EA has about 80 or more households.  About 15 house holds were sampled from each urban EA using the systematic random sampling method.  This gave about 30 respondents from each EA.  From this frame, every fifth household was selected to represent the population.  This is because the sampling fraction is about 5 i.e 15/80.  In each selected household, an ever-married respondent male and female were interviewed.  Where no such couple was found were interviewed.  Where no such couple was found effort was made to select other respondents in the next household as a replacement.  The respondents were interviewed in pairs (husband and wife) to enable the research examine both individual and interpersonal variables responsible for fertility decisions.

All the 660 respondents were administered with structured interview schedule that had 47 questions.  The schedule contained detailed information about individual, household and community characteristics or variables affecting fertility.  The questions included social and demographic characteristics about people, household income, contraceptive awareness and utilisation, household decision-making processes etc.  The focus group discussion sessions were also formed taking into cognisance level of education, age, sex and residence.  The discussion guide had 30 questions related to the research.
For each of the items in the interview schedule, the respondents were to choose between the alternatives provided and in some cases the questions were open-ended.  The interview schedule was prepared by the researcher and validity and reliability were ensured by the systematic process of item selection by senior researchers and professor in sociology and demography.  Internal consistency reliability was ensured by the fact that the schedule was administered to subjects in the surrounding communities in form of pilot study before the large scale research was conducted.
To effectively reach this large sample 16 research assistants (8 males and 8 females) made up of graduate students and secondary school teachers in the communities were trained for the filed work.  A pre-projection visits were made to three (3) chosen location and the instruments tested as part of the training programme.  The focus group discussion session were conducted by the researcher because very accurate observations were needed.  Two researchers were to visit each sampled couple and interview conducted simultaneously.  The male was to interview the man and the female interview the woman. It was felt that couples will be freer with same sex than opposite sex due to the sensitive nature of the questions.  This means that research assistants were to visit couples only when it was convenient for both of them.  Evenings and Sunday became ideal periods for the interview.  This account for why research assistants were selected from their communities.
Multi-variant analysis (multiple regression) was conducted.  In addition to this, qualitative analysis was conducted on data generated from the focus group discussion.
It was revealed in this study that of the 1320 respondents, 1167 representing 88.4 percent have attended and received some forms of formal education.  Only 11.6 percent claimed that they did not receive any form of schooling and are therefore unable to read and write.  About 90.2 percent of the female and 86.7 percent of the male respondents have received some forms of education.  While 82.2 percent of this group are on the rural areas, 95.8 percent of them are urban dwellers indicating a high level of education in urban areas.
The Table (II) below reveal that of the 1167 respondents who received some forms of schooling, the majority representing 64.6 percent, had between 7 and 12 years of formal education.  About 68.7 percent of the men fall within this age group relative to 53.6 percent for the female respondents.  Only 12.2 percent of women respondents had about 12 years of schooling relative to 34 percent men.  It is not surprising that only 14.2 percent of rural respondents spent 12 years and above in school.  A closer look at these figures reveal that more males acquired higher levels of education compared to the women.
On the issue of educational attainment, about 17.9 percent of all respondents had some primary school education (complete or not).  A total of 7.5 percent males had only primary school education compared with 27.9 of women.  But surprisingly 13.7 percent of the urban respondents fall into this low education category relative to 21.9 percent of the rural sample.  It was revealed by the data that as the level of education increases beyond secondary school level, the disparity in  the educational attainment between men and women starts to widen.  This shows that although all children might be encouraged to attain some forms of education, higher educational attainment is found more among males than females.  Early marriages for women may also be partly responsible for this disparity in educational attainment.
On the relationship between level of education and fertility, the multiple regression analysis of children ever born and ideal family size was done for both males and females.  This was due to the gender variables involved in this work.  This analysis was therefore not concentrated only on female respondents which has become a tradition in demographic analysis partly because we found out that even as couples, individuals may have fertility values and motivations which may not be subsumed in the marital union even when classified as “one body one flesh”.
Women education has been associated with lower fertility as shown in virtually all studies in fertility.  Female education is also though to facilitate fertility decline by increasing the bargaining power of women, allowing them greater control over their destiny and improving husband-wife communication (Jejeeboy 1992, UN 1987).  In this study, education shows the expected inverse relationship with children ever born and ideal family size for female (P<.01) for the males. Increase in education also stimulate a decrease in the number of children ever born and ideal family size.  This means that as the man’s status increase in relation to educational attainment he makes efforts to plan his family. (See table)
A positive relationship was also found to exist between higher educational attainment and participation in family discussions and decisions.  The same relationship was also in existence with husband-wife communication in relation to reproductive issues.  In other words, higher educational attainment exposes the women and instill in her that courage to communicate freely with her husband.  This openness encourage initiating and participating in family discussion including reproductive matters.  On who takes the final decision, it was observed that while educational attainment stimulate participation in family decision, it does not confer on the women the right to take final decision. These conclusions finds support in the qualitative analysis of the focus group discussion sessions. The analysis reveal that although it was expected that educated women are more likely to participate in reproductive decision-making, what was found here was that such participation was not automatic.  From the focus group discussion sessions, the level of education of the man, closeness of the man to tradition, maturity of the women and the liberal attitude of the man and his family members are some of the factors responsible for such participation.
One FGD session reached the following consensus.
Educated women can only take part in family discussion in the home including reproductive matters without creating problems when the husband himself is educated and create avenues for such discussion and decisions.  For example whether educated or not, a woman cannot use family planning without the consent of the husband.  She also cannot refuse her husband sexual advances what ever the level of education.  The man has control over a lot of things including taking final decision in all family matters.
This consensus from the focus group discussion (FGDs) is that higher educational attainment for the women does not automatically translate into taking reproductive decision.  The man must be involved to take final decision.
The data from the study revealed that females education greatly engender empowerment.  It gives women the opportunity to work outside  the home and acquire diverse skills and useful ideas both from books and colleagues which are capable of strengthening their relationship with their husbands, in-laws and eve children.  This affects their ability to enhance family welfare, health and nutrition and perhaps female participation in reproductive decision-making within the home.  Educated women marry late and are more likely to have fewer children.  This suggest that to reduce family size, we have to concentrate on and encourage female education.  Although female education has  been encouraged in this part of the country, empirical findings reveal that where the means to train children are scarce, preference is given to male children.  Education of male is also important but education for the women has a greater effect on reducing fertility rate.  Towards this end, massive and compulsory education for the girl-child must be encouraged and sustained by the government at all levels.  Parents should also be encouraged to train the girl-child and if the means are scare to train all children the brilliant ones should be trained irrespective of the sex.  This has become important as some of the respondents argue that female children are even better as old age insurance compared to male children.
Aside this, gender equality and women empowerment programmes through public lectures, marital counselling or other enlightenment campaigns should be vigorously pursued because these would improve the living conditions of most people especially those of women and children.  It should be made a vital component of the new population policy.  This calls also for Cairo 1984 international conferences of population and developments (ICPD) plan of action which observed that “advancing of gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women and the elimination of all kinds of violence against women and ensuring women’s ability to control their own fertility are cornerstone of population and development related programmes”.  It is strongly believed that as this differences between the sexes diminishes, women will be able to control their reproductive lives.  This will have effect on maternal and child health, reduce infant mortality and population growth rate.
The growing adoption of some of these policies will give a better insight into the relationship between gender and fertility control behaviour.


 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)

Table I: Percentage distribution of the respondents by school attendance.

 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)

Table II: Percentage distribution of respondents by number of years of schooling.

 Place of residenceSex of respondentAll respondents
1 – 616.7(96)23.8(141)7.3(42)29.4(175)18.6(217)
7 – 1263.7(366)62.0(367)68.7(393)53.6(361)64.6(754)
13 – 1817.6(103)14.2(84)24.0(137)12.2(59)16.8(176)
19 +1.7(10)1.8(10)0.9(10)

Table III: Percentage distribution of the respondents by educational attainment.

 Children ever bornIdeal family size
No schooling

Table IV: Ordinary least square regression coefficient of children ever born and ideal family size by socio-economic and demographic variables alone.

 Children ever bornIdeal family size
No schooling

Table V: Ordinary least square regression coefficient of children ever born and ideal family size by socio-economic and demographic variables with reproductive decision making variables.


  • Ainsworth, M.K, Beegle and A. Nyameter (1996) “The Impact of Women’s Schooling on Fertility and Contraceptive Use: A Study in fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries” in The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10. No. 1, pp. 81 – 109.
  • Awa, N.O (1996), Educational marginalisation of Girls and Its Counseling Perspective, The Counsellor. 14(2) p. 101 – 105
  • Caldwell, J. (1979) “Education as a Factor in Mortality Decline: An Examination of Niger Delta”. Population Studies (33) p. 45 – 58
  • Croll E. (1995) Changing Attitudes of Chinese Women, London, Zed Books.
  • Conway, J.K. and S.C. Bourgue (1993) “Introduction” in The Politics of Women’s Education, Perspectives from Asia, Africa ad Latin America. Eds. Ann Arbor. University of Michigan Press.
  • Odiagbe, O.S. (2004) Gender Responsibility, Reproductive Decision-making and Fertility Among the Esan People of Nigeria. (Ph.D. Thesis).
  • Okorodudu, R.I. and Igun S.E. (2002) Analysis of Contemporary Trend of Gender Education in Nigeria: Implication for Nation Building: Journal of the Nigerian Sociological Society Vol.1, No. 1. pp 89 – 113
  • Riley, N. (1997), “Gender, Power and Population Change” Population Bulletin, Vol 52, No.1. pp 1 – 52
  • Umar,L.K.K (1996) Education of the Girl-Child in Northern Nigeria. A Case for Counselling: The Counsellor 14(2). Pp 77 – 83

Effective Communication in a Large Class Via C.C.T.V: Lecturers / Students Perception


This study examined the views of the University of Lagos academic community (lecturers and students) on the use of CCTV for effective communication in large classes. 300 respondents made up of 100 lecturers and 200 students were randomly selected for the purpose of this study. The Lecturers Perception Questionnaire (LPQ) and the Students perception Questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.75 and 0.82 respectively were used for the collection of data. The two null hypotheses generated for the study were tested at 0.05 alpha level using the t-test statistical tool. It was discovered that years of experienced played a major role in the perception of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes. Students and lecturers were found to be positively unanimous in perception on the subject of the study. It was suggested that lecturers should not be phobic about achieving effective communication in large classes; rather, they should focus more on timely utilization of the appropriate technology that can enhance effective communication in large classes.  

The phenomenon of large classes is fast becoming the vogue of higher institutions in Africa, if not all over the world. The large class syndrome has been attributed to the expansion in annual students’ enrolment. At any rate, education as old as man has been characterized with mass instruction and this is the peculiarity of large classes in various institutions (Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, 2003). Students, as many as three or four hundred, often cluster  in a small hall tending to pay attention to the “talking and chalking” lecturer who occasionally scribbles on the chalkboard, while it is mostly assumed that, as the lecturer passes the necessary information through verbal means, learning  takes place. Whereas Awoniyi, (1998) found out that in such a situation, much teaching goes on, but little learning takes place with only a few of the students as a result of the gap between the lecturer, the taught and the content.

In a large class, where lecture method is typically the mode of instruction, meeting the needs of the variety of students through effective communication has therefore been found to be a challenge. Though it is often thought that learning occurs in proportion to class size, that is, the smaller the size the more the students learn, however, the size of a class may not absolutely be a predictor of students learning and quality of teaching (Felder, 1997). In essence, there is the need to be conscious of the fact that the key to effective instruction and students learning is effective communication. However, Roger (1995) expressed that in most universities and other higher institutions, large classes are sometimes handled by graduate teaching assistants who have been assumed to know both “what” to teach and “how” best to teach it, despite the fact that most of them enter into teaching without experience. The question that may bother one’s mind is, are these graduate teaching assistants aware of what the students need and expect from classroom communication?

Communication is a vital key to effective teaching and learning, thus the ability of a teacher to effectively convey a concept to the students so as to understand and synthesis what the teacher is presenting is of paramount importance. Ogunsaju (2004) earmarked effective communication as the most viable tool for achieving effectiveness in teaching and learning. There is the need for exchange of meanings to take place between the teacher and learners before communication can be assumed to have taken place. Learning in itself is the resultant effect of effective communication between the teacher and the learner (Andrew, 2000). In his own words, Sleeman (1976) said that effective communication in the classroom exists when there is a good interaction between the learner, the information and the instructor. If the interactive nature must be achieved in a large class, the traditional syndrome of a lecturer talking to a sea of heads seeming to attend his lecture, while many of them engage in other activities other than those related to what is going on in the class, is a  problem that must be attended to. All students, even those with disabilities must have been considered to benefit from the process of teaching and learning before effective communication in teaching can be achieved (Protrowski & Reason (2000) as cited by Norkeliunas 2003). It could be  felt that, one of the primary purposes of effective communication in the classroom is to spark, and guide active mental processing, develop competencies, gain attention and catch the interest of the students when they have access to information and make meanings from such information.

Awoniyi (1998) advocated that, for the quality of education to be improved, technology must be employed. Riesland (2005) was of the opinion that communication; even in the classroom has been positively influenced through the use of appropriate instructional media, at least for the purpose of ensuring that all students benefit from the teaching and learning process. It is worthy of note that in most cases, a scenario of educational environment is not created in large classes because, many students of such large classes turn the back of the class and outside the classroom into market place by chatting and discussing with friends (Valenzi, 1997). No wonder, Adekomi (1999) suggested the need for teachers to have a change of style in order to meet the demands of learners and avoid complaints about poor performance.

In spite of the enormous communicative problems being faced in large classes of various institutions, effective communication can still be achieved through the use of appropriate technology. Innumerable research findings have shown that audio-visual media contribute immensely to learners’ understanding, performance in learning through effective communication (Arthur & Stephen 2003; Awoniyi 1988; Jenkins 1978). It is interesting to know that the speed at which technology is altering classroom communication is alarming, because of the strength it adds to the students and teachers interaction. Riesland (2005) in a study found that students were excited with the idea of content presentation through the visual and sound elements of the media he used. He further reported the overwhelming attention and active participation he received from the students through the audio-visual media. It follows therefore, that the use of Closed-Circuit Television in a large class will create a better interaction between the taught, the content and the teacher.

Oluyitan (1998) described the Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) as a signal received on specific private receiver that can be achieved by direct transmission from the camera to the receiver through a cable system. Marc (2000) explained Closed-Circuit Television as a television broadcasting received only by a selected set and is connected to the source by cable or by over the air signals (those receiving over the air signals are equipped with decodes or adapters). To Marc, this medium is a good tool for achieving effective dissemination of information, skills to learners, even at different locations. Ebert (1998) observed that the use of Closed-Circuit Television increases students’ involvement in learning. Zimmer (2003) remarked that the use of Closed-Circuit Television allows for the incorporation of animation,  moving pictures and sound into the lessons and this encourages students’ interaction with the subject matter. According to him, students irrespective of their location in the  class can watch experiments in action, look microorganisms up close by through the magnification ability of the camera. Information and ideas are conveyed to students quickly. Martyn (1996), Foundation for the Blind Children (2002) Haynes (2005), and Mills (2003), revealed that the auditory and visual capabilities of CCTV, promote acquisition of knowledge, improve understanding and foster student’s ability to learn than the mere use of traditional method of teaching

The use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for instruction in Nigerian institutions is no longer a new thing. For instance, Obafemi Awolowo University (then University of Ife), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Distance Learning Institute, and College of Medicine of University of Lagos, Yaba, Akoka, Lagos-State  make use of CCTV for instructional purposes, in the classrooms, and laboratories. Few studies have been conducted on the use of technological devices such as television, video recorder and Television as well as audio-visual media to enhance and facilitate learners’ performance (Norkeliunas, 1995; Valenzi, 1997; Yiu, 2000). This study is a survey of perception of lecturers and students on effective communication in large class via the use of Closed-Circuit Television (C.C.T.V.)

For the purpose of this study, two hypotheses were formulated:
There will be no significant difference between the perception of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes.
There will be no significant difference between the perception of the lecturers and the students about the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large classes.
Method of study
The sample for this study was 200 undergraduate students and 100 lecturers drawn from the Distance Learning Institute, and the faculty of Education of the University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos.  56 students, 24 lecturers and 144 students, 76 lecturers were randomly selected respectively from the Distance Learning Institute, and the Faculty of Education of the University.
The instruments used to collect data for this study were the Lecturers Perception Questionnaire (LPQ) and the Students Perception Questionnaire (SPQ).  The instruments were designed on 4-point Likert type scale of SA, A, SD, D, and each of the instruments consists of two sections. Section A of each instrument consists of 18 items, while Section B consists of related demographic information of the respondents. Lecturers with years of teaching experience below seven years (7) were grouped as low experienced lecturers, while those with seven years and above working experience were categorized as high experienced lecturers. However, Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the instruments yielded 0.75 (LPQ) and 0.82 (SPQ). Three educational technologists carried out both the face and content validity of the instruments.
The questionnaires were administered on one hundred lecturers and two hundred students with the help of two research assistants. The administered questionnaires were collected back within two weeks and were later scored. Meanwhile, the data collected through the questionnaire was analysed using independent t-test statistics
Table 1: T-test on perceptions of less and highly experienced lecturers on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication.


The results in Table 1 is highly revealing in that, there exist significant difference in the opinions of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in large classes. The calculated t-value of 2.73 was found to be greater than the t-tabulated value of 1.98. Thus the first hypothesis, which states that “there will be no significant difference  between the perceptions of the less and highly experienced lecturers on the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large class” is rejected.

Table 2: T-test on the perceptions of lecturers and students, on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication.


The results on Table 2 show that there is no significant difference in the perceptions of lecturers and students on the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in large  classes. The calculated t-value of 0.323 was found to be less than the t-tabulated value of 1.98. Thus, hypothesis two which states that there will be no significant difference between the perceptions of the lecturers and the students on the use of Closed-Circuit Television for effective communication in large class is accepted.

It is obvious from the findings of this study that years of experience played a major role in the difference in the opinions of the less and highly experienced lecturers about the use of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) for effective communication in a large class.

Among the lecturers, 62.5% of them who were highly experienced on the job attested to the fact that, the CCTV is a good tool for enhancing and achieving effective communication in large classes. The perceptions of the less experienced lecturer contradicts the finding of Norkeliunas (1995) who recorded immeasurable high level of effective communication with the use of CCTV in teaching Russian language within his early six years as a lecturer. However, this finding of  Norkeliunas corroborates with the findings of some other researchers such as (Ebert 1998; Zimmer 2003), and the perception of the highly experienced lecturers used for this study. Therefore, one may be tempted to say that; the difference in the perceptions of the two groups of the Nigerian lecturers used for this study could be as a result of their exposure to the use of technological devices for instruction, which is relatively affected by their years of experience.
Another major finding of this study is that, there was an agreement between the perception of the students and the lecturers (highly experienced). They both agreed that the use of Closed-Circuit Television in a large class produces effective communication. The result on Table 2 therefore tallies with the findings of Nathanael, (1998) and Smith (1990).

The opinions of Norkeliunas (2003) and Davis (1991) that the audio and visual presentation of CCTV in a large class keep the students alerted and focused, was corroborated in this study. However, the perception of lecturers and  students that CCTV is highly efficient in large classes for achieving effective communication is supported emphatically by the findings of Yiu (2000) and Chester (2000) which revealed that students can give feedback, reactions or even answers to the lecturer’s questions in their different locations via the Public Address System (PAS) that is connected to the CCTV system. To Yiu and Chester, students access to the screen gives an opportunity to the lecturers to inform, instruct and communicate with the entire class easily.
Large number of students’ enrolment in higher institutions is becoming unavoidable, especially in Nigeria. The desire to meet the needs of all the students in such large classes through effective communication should not be an issue for discussion but rather a challenge that must be addressed adequately and given necessary positive approach. The idea that effective communication is unachievable has been proved to be obnoxious, because the potency of the efficiency of Closed-Circuit Television for achieving effective communication in large class has been authenticated in this study. Whatever the feelings of individuals, it should be accepted that technology has come to play central role of information and communication between instructor, the content and the students. There is therefore, the need to enlighten, and sensitize the lecturers of large classes about CCTV as a “magic wizard” that can be used to improve the quality of communication, open up communication among students and lecturers.
As a result of the outcomes of this study, it is therefore recommended that lecturers of large classes should discard the notion that effective communication is not achievable with large number of students; rather they should focus more on the utilization of the appropriate technology that can enhance effective communication in large class. We are of the view that, if lecturers are taken through the operation and the use of technology in education during seminars and workshops they will be more equipped with information, strategies and skills that will help them to overcome the challenges of large classes. There is need for Nigerian University authorities to find means of providing alternative electric power supply because of the erratic and epileptic nature of national power supply which could in no small way jeopardize the effective use of C.C.T.V.


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